8 Halle’s: A Treasure House of Gift

Another major Cleveland department store debuted in 1891 when two enterprising brothers named Samuel and Salmon P. Halle paid $75,000 to purchase Paddock & Company at 89-91 Euclid Avenue.[1]  Originally a furrier and hat repair shop, the Halle brothers quickly expanded their merchandise lines to include clothing, shoes and home furnishings.  They also developed a large regional customer-base based on mail orders.  Mail order shoppers bought mostly suits, jackets and capes.[2] One of the Halle Brothers early slogans summed it best when it said, “Look at Our Stock before Going Elsewhere.”

These ambitious retailers, in 1898, moved their business to larger quarters in the Nottingham Building.  Now called the Halle Brothers Company, this store quickly became a favorite place for those demanding the very best in fashions and home furnishings.[3] Bathing suits, neck pieces, umbrellas and gloves represent some of the new items they carried.  Local newspapers praised them for their courtesy sales staff and straight-forward pricing.  The Halle brothers, in 1902, remodeled their establishment.  Improvements included updating the front façade; expanding floor space and adding new elevators.  They also expanded their merchandise lines to include jewelry, leather goods and perfume.

Their expanding business soon required additional space.  The Halle Brothers, in 1908, rented the entire Pope Building for $1,000,000 a year.[4]  Located on the south side of Euclid Avenue to the east of East 12th Street, this 140,000 square foot, terra-cotta clad, 10-story building featured about 100 foot display windows.  The new Halle’s included a first class furniture department, enlarged book store and bargain store.  The book store gained national recognition for its many book signings and lectures by prominent authors while the bargain store’s two items for the price of one won the hearts of many thrifty shoppers.

Halle’s profits continued to soar.  Officials, in 1911, unveiled plans for a new 665,000 square foot store.  Adjacent to the Pope Building at 1228 Euclid Avenue, this retail establishment cost $1,500,000.[5]  It featured a specially designed vacuum cleaning system and special slide for packages.  This impressive terra-cotta clad structure, designed by the nationally-recognized architect Henry Bacon (1866-1924) with interiors by Owen Coghlin, later served as the backdrop for the popular Drew Carey Show.

This new retail facility nearly doubled Halle’s floor space.  Yet, in spite of its massive size, such things as short distances between counters and normal aisle widths offered the intimate shopping experience most Halle’s customers wanted.[6]  The same could not be said about the new Wanamaker store in Philadelphia, PA.  An impressive Neo-Renaissance department store, designed in 1910 by noted Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, this monumental structure with its shinny granite walls, super-sized ornamentation, numerous art galleries, and huge organ main floor intimidated many customers.  Further expansion by Halle’s occurred on the east side of Huron Road just opposite the south entrances to the main store.  Designed in 1927 by the architectural firm of Walker & Weeks and called the Huron-Prospect Building, it housed Halle’s Men’s Department for the next thirty years.

The Halle Brothers Company set the pace for Cleveland retailers for many years to come.  It began in 1913 when Halle’s sponsored its-own shopper’s calendar.[7]  Featured in the Cleveland Plain Dealer, it contained prose and poetry dedicated to fashion.  This retailer also led the pack when, in 1916, it introduced summer furniture sales and fall rug sales.  Halle’s, during the First World War, also offered excellent high quality shoes for businessmen.[8] Store officials also sold Liberty Bonds.

An intensive training program for sales personnel, begun in 1912, was also a Halle’s first.  Store executives, two years later, also took the lead when they adopted an electrically-powered credit system.  Developed by National Cash Register Company, it enabled Halle salespersons to check the credit status of their customers by phoning the credit department from their cashier stations.  Steinway Hall, an in-house auditorium for recitals and plays, symbolized another first.  It also operated two popular restaurants: the Geranium Room and Minotaur Room.  Store officials, in the 1920s, added a pneumatic tube system whereby salespersons using canisters now could send money directly to cashiers.[9] Halle’s also offered a children’s playground and miniature golf course.

Shoppers loved the Halle Brothers promotions of the “Roaring Twenties.”  They ran the gamut from contests and fashion show hints on WTAM-radio to bridge tournaments and charity drives.[10] The store even got into the motion picture business when in cooperation with First National Pictures/Warner Brothers Pictures and WHK-radio, Halle’s served as the set for a 1933 film called “Good Bye Again.”[11] Halle Brothers also worked closely with local builders.  It furnished interiors for model suits built by Arcy Steel Frame Houses in the Forest Hill section of East Cleveland, OH and later the Ridgewood Country Club Estates.

Time Magazine in its June 6, 1927 issue commended Halle’s.[12]  It said it was one of the best run department stores in the country equal to Lord & Taylor’s, B. Altman’s, R.H. Stearns and Marshall Field’s.  With the intention of becoming a major regional force in retailing, officials opened branch stores in Erie, PA (1928), New Castle, PA (1930) and Canton, OH (1930).[13] Halle’s, over the next forty-five years, added nine more stores primarily in Northeast Ohio.

This premier store led the pack during the Great Depression of the 1930s when it offered a special line of affordable, quality clothing.  Called the “Right Line,” this clothing line appealed to thrifty shoppers.  Halle’s also believed that baby items must be safe.  Their advertisements, in the early 1930s, claimed that educators and pediatricians examined and tested all baby garments before they sold them.[14] Executives in 1935 offered their customers two-hour parking for $.15 at the nearby Hanna Garage.  In an attempt to help their shoppers even further, Halle’s in the mid-1930s introduced its-own installment plan.  Qualified customers now had up to three months to pay off their debt.

The surge in the U.S. economy, during the late 1930s, encouraged store officials to open a new travel agency and Steuben glass shop.[15] The outbreak of the Second World War led to shorter store hours, limited home deliveries and elimination of free gift wrapping.[16] Halle’s also remained open Sundays during the war years and encouraged shoppers to buy both war bonds and savings stamps.  Many of its employees served with distinction in the Armed Services.  These efforts apparently paid-off.  Total taxes paid by Halle Brothers increased from $529,865 in 1939 to $856.741 by 1941.[17] Dividends over those same two years rose from $745,211 to $854,445.  The value of common stock increased from $2.69 a share to $3.18 a share.

This positive earnings trend continued throughout the war.  Pre-tax earnings for 1944 totaled $2,707,336, with dividends at $765,336 and common stock selling at $2.79 a share.  Federal taxes took 72% of the net earnings that year.  Even so, those figures represented an increase over pre-tax net earnings for 1943 which were $2,233,953 with dividends at $733,953 and common stock selling for $2.52 a share.[18]

The Halle Brothers Company, after the war, led competitors when they installed modern escalators.  Carrying up to 8,000 shoppers per hour, these escalators provided shoppers panoramic views of merchandise on each and every floor.  It represented subliminal advertising at its finest.  On another note, rumors circulated in the late 1950s that many department stores relied on a similar technique to promote sales.  This time the subliminal approach involved faint voice-overs superimposed in background music.  This voice, periodically, would tell customers to purchase certain items.  Of course, department store officials claimed that they never employed such “dishonest” tactics.  However, these rumors persisted for years.

Halle Brothers, in 1947, erected an 11–story service building at the corner of Prospect Avenue and East 14th Street.[19] This $2,600,000 structure handled special deliveries and sorted out supplies.  Halle’s also sponsored a number of new, community-based promotions.  They began with the Halle Air Races.  A part of the annual Cleveland Air Races, these closed course races were geared for women pilots.  Winners received a special trophy, while runner-ups got store prizes.  Halle’s also hosted “Recognition Day.”  First held on November 11, 1946, it recognized the important contributions made by U.S. veterans during the Second World War.[20]

Other post-war events included an annual Scholastic Magazine art exhibition for students and a host of exhibitions.  One of the more popular exhibitions, occurred during the spring of 1952, when Halle’s displayed a 99.52 caret diamond owned by the Shah of Iran.[21] Store executives also hosted Ernie’s Miniature Circus.  All proceeds from that event went towards polio research.  Board members, in 1954, arranged a special visit by the children’s comedian Pinky Lee.  Halle’s, the following year, in conjunction with the Cleveland News and Cleveland Plain Dealer sponsored the Cleveland Music and Dance Festival.[22]

The late 1940s and early 1950s represented a time of great change and innovation for this leading Cleveland department store.  It began in late 1946 when the Board of Directors expanded its mail order business and customer phone service.[23] In the latter case, shoppers now had the opportunity of phoning in their orders twenty-four hours a day.  Halle’s also provided additional financial incentives for those purchasing luxury items.  Housewares, for example, introduced a new special program for customers wishing to purchase beautiful sterling silver sets.  Known as the Silver Budget Plan, it enabled qualified shoppers to purchase individual pieces for $. 51.[24]

Halle’s led other local retailers in other significant ways.  It began in February 1947 when it opened an apparel and accessory shop for children at the corner of Cedar Road and Boulevard in Cleveland Hts., OH.  It closed in 1950.  Halle’s, in 1948, debuted its first full-service branch store at 13000 Shaker Boulevard, just west of Shaker Square.  This 15,900 square foot, contemporary-styled building designed by the architectural firm of Conrad, Hays, Simpson & Little featured special interior lighting by Abraham Feder.  This store contained 35 departments.[25]

Executives, in 1948, also unveiled plans for their first west side store.  Part of a $6,000,000 expansion program, this Rocky River, OH site cost about $175,000.[26] Unfortunately, legal entanglements prevented groundbreaking for several years.  Halle’s, in 1954, became one of the anchor stores for the new Westgate Shopping Center.[27] This new, state-of-the-art $10,000,000 structure, designed by William T. Spaith, featured a white brick veneer set against a dramatic backdrop of cement blocks and rough-cut fieldstone.

Employees, in September 1954, mourned the loss of one of the store’s founders Salmon P. Halle.  He had retired, in 1921, to pursue his philanthropic interests.  Mr. Halle supported a great many philanthropies such things as the Cleveland Community Federation; Cleveland Hospital Service Association, Mt. Sinai Hospital and the Cleveland Orchestra.  A gregarious person, Mr. Halle enjoyed talking with customers.[28]

Halle’s, in 1949, approved another branch store in University Hts., OH.  Designed by Anthony Visconsi, this two-story, 25,000 square foot store featured wired in music, light colored wood showcases and fitting rooms.  A 1,500 car parking lot surrounded it.[29] Halle’s, in 1952, renovated one of its two Canton, OH stores at the Shopping Center.[30] Store officials, in 1955, announced plans to build another suburban outlet at the new Southland Shopping Center located at 6875 Pearl Road in Middleburg Hts., OH.

This two-story, $2,000,000 white brick veneer building, also designed by Anthony Visconsi, resembled the Westgate store.[31] This air conditioned structure featured a patio area, 5,000 car parking lot, pharmacy and opticians.  Hot water pipes placed below the sidewalks melted away the ice and snow.[32] A popular Akron-based department store known as Polsky’s bought the two Canton stores.

The Board of Directors, in July 1949, expanded the store’s Huron Road facility.  This $5,000,000 expansion effort added more than 100,000 square feet to the original store.[33] This new facility featured an impressive employee’s cafeteria, 15-room hospital, education department, silverware department and huge lounge.  Also, a new 75,000 gallon water tank was placed on its roof.  An even more ambitious project followed several years later.  A study by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, in the early 1950s, suggested that retail sales would be increasing anywhere from 7% to 10% annually for the next decade, and that downtown Cleveland would remain the most important shopping center.

Halle’s board members, in 1954, authorized downtown renovations that exceeded $1,000,000.  The world renowned New York designer Raymond Loewy directed these efforts.  Major changes included converting the upper four levels from office space to open retail space, moving all store and employee services to the new Service Building, installing store-wide air-conditioning and expanding current elevator service.  To defray these expenses, Halle Brothers issued 30,000 shares of preferred stock with warrants for common shares at $25.00 per share.[34]

The Board of Directors and staff, in August 1954, mourned the passing of the other store founder Samuel H. Halle.  A quiet man, he shared his brother’s passion for the store.  Mr. Halle remained the store’s President until 1945 when he became Board Chairman.  Samuel Halle, during the First World War, served as a Major in the Quartermasters Corp.  He also piloted planes and supported the Cleveland Air Races.[35]

Halle’s board members, in 1954, approved plans to convert the store’s Huron-Prospect Building into office space.  The basement store also received a major facelift.[36] Improvements in the basement store included grouping departments by function, installing new perimeter lighting and introducing self-service. The $250,000 renovation of the Huron-Prospect Building, completed in 1957, created a new 300-car indoor garage operated by Hanna Parking Company.  Halle’s Men’s Shop, for the first time in thirty years, returned to the main store.  Its third floor housed the Cuyahoga County Board of Elections.  The county rented this facility for $50,000 a year.[37]

These many construction projects required a great deal of capital.  However, that was no major obstacle in the 1950s when profits remained high.  To illustrate this point, Halle’s net earnings for 1954, before taxes, stood at $1,729,501, a gain of 9.46% from 1953 levels.  Store officials paid $363,480 in dividends on both preferred and common stock.  Liabilities, in 1954, were $2,000,000 net, while working capital remained strong at $8,083,434.[38] This was indeed good news.   Halle’s executives responded by initiating a five-day a week work schedule for their full-time staff.  Officials hired part-timers to handle slack periods.

The store’s highly competent managers and aggressive sales staff made this success possible.  They provided customers with what they wanted and needed, and they did it efficiently.  For example, Halle’s led the pack when it introduced a full week devoted to brides.[39] This annual autumn event included fashion shows, special prizes and significant savings on merchandise needed by brides.  Periodic sales brought thousands of shoppers to Euclid Avenue store.  Their sales on large ticket items such as televisions, pianos, organs, roller skates and mattresses especially appealed to budget-minded customers.

But, Halle’s long-term success as a retailer was not predicated exclusively on promotions and sales.  Its board members considered themselves part of the community.  This connection with the community manifested itself in many unique ways.  For example, store officials, in the 1950s, provided a helpful service for customers wishing to enroll their children in summer camps.  Throughout the month of April, summer camp directors and teachers met with hundreds of parents to discuss the various options available for their children.  These experts matched the child with the camp.[40]

First class entertainment also entered into this success equation.  To illustrate this last point, store officials announced in November 1952 that their 22nd Fashion Show would be hosted by the famous film star Gloria Swanson (1899-1983). Annual autograph parties in the book department proved equally popular.  Halle’s, in cooperation with the Danish Ambassador Henrik Kaufmann, sponsored an exhibition showcasing nine artists in the Jensen silver tradition.[41] Store officials, in 1952, also operated a contest called the “Doll Festival for Children.”[42] Over 700 girls submitted entries.  Top winners received prizes and had their entries displayed in the toy department.  Store executives later sent these dolls to poor children in Europe.  Halle Brothers, in 1953, along with Seventeen Magazine sponsored the “Model Teen Room Contest.”  Winners received their-own $300 room makeover.[43]

Community service also included such things as free typing classes courtesy of Royal Typewriting Company and an Annual Art Carnival hosted by the Cleveland Institute of Art.[44] Store officials, beginning in 1954, offered free Cleveland Pops concerts in the store’s courtyard.[45] They also provided space for the Society of the Blind to sell their merchandise.[46] Halle’s, in January 1955, introduced its first International Travel Show which featured Mexico and India.[47] Those shoppers using Halle’s travel agency received special assistance from a Pan American Airlines stewardess.[48]

Special exhibitions brought thousands of customers to Halle’s on a regular basis.  For example, to commemorate the coronation, in 1952, of the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II, the store sold its first minted British coins bearing her likeness.[49] Halle’s also led its competitors in selling the latest knitting machine.  These machines significantly reduced the time necessary to make sweaters, shirts, stoles and wraps.  This retailer also furnished a special hand blended face powder just for women for $1.00 a box.[50]

Halle’s, in the 1952 shopping season, set the fashion pace by becoming the exclusive agent for both Angelus clocks and Continental ties.[51]  Other unique promotions included stock market forums, street bazaars and lessons on how to purchase planting trees.[52] Its highly popular British Art’s Fair and Golden Age Hobby Show brought many customers downtown.  For those wishing to visit up-state New York, its first class travel shop furnished a New York State Thruway guide for free.[53] Halle Brothers also gave away gift catalogs containing hundreds of items for even the most discriminating shopper.

The escalating cost of high ticket items, in the early 1950s, led Halle Brothers to initiate a new installment plan with no finance charges for the first thirty days.  Qualified customers enjoyed two options under this new plan.  One enabled them to take full advantage of the thirty day offer by making a 10% down payment on all items purchased, and then, through a pre-arranged monthly payment schedule, pay the remainder-off.  A second option required customers to place all items purchased in layaway.  They had anywhere from one to ninety days to pay-off the balance.  A breach of contract often led to legal repercussions.  Failure to meet obligation, as specified through this voluntary contractual agreement, meant the possible forfeiture of the items, in question, as well as the assumption, by the customer or customers involved, of any and all additional administrative and/or legal costs incurred by the Halle Company.[54]

Halle’s love of children led officials, in 1956, to introduce their-own version of Santa Claus called Mr. Jingeling.  A Chicago advertising agent and friend of Walter M. Halle named Frank Jacobi developed the idea.  Known as “the Keeper of the Keys,” Mr. Jingeling entertained thousands of children annually during the Christmas season.  Many Clevelanders could not imagine Christmas without him.  Max Ellis, Karl Mackey, Earl Keyes and Jonathan Wilhelm played the role.

Hoping to boost downtown sales in the mid-1950s, Halle’s provided free daily bus rides from Public Square to Playhouse Square and back.  Its managers also sold tickets to the opera, various sports events and, of course, the annual flower show.  The advertising department’s latest slogan “A Gift from Halle’s Means More” meant something special to many Clevelanders.[55] One new service the store introduced helped to take the guess work out of choosing quality carpeting.  Halle Brothers Home Carpet Showroom now brought samples to the customers’ home or office for their inspection.  The opening of a new and delicious bakery impressed nearly everyone.  The Halle Brothers, in 1955, hosted a fashion show at Westgate for girl scouts.   Part of Girl Scout’s Week, this event attracted over 2,000 youngsters.[56] Halle’s also provided tennis lessons; gardening tips and organ lessons courtesy of the Hammond Organ Company.[57] An expanded optical department also brought crowds.  Executives, in the late 1950s, played an increasingly important role in the local Community Chest, Goodrich Settlement House and the Federation for Community Planning.

The 1960s ushered in a new wave of community-focused activities, keynote events and special promotions.  Halle’s advertising department worked closely with the West Side Association for the Retarded Child to help them develop new fundraising approaches.[58] This non-profit, over the next decade, received more than $1,000,000 in contributions.  Halle’s, in November 1960, distributed the first in a series of publications entitled “News of the Week in Cleveland 100 Years Ago.”[59] The local media praised store officials for their dedication to Cleveland.

Board members, beginning in January 1961, sponsored eight week-two hour sewing classes for $20.00.  Not to be outdone by competitors, Halle Brothers unveiled a new Thursday night family buffet served at the Minotaur Room.  It cost $2.00 for the host and $1.50 for others.  Children ate for $1.00.[60]  Nineteen sixty-one marked the 100th anniversary of the Civil War.  To commemorate it, Halle’s showed several documentary films including “A Civil War Diary.”[61] The National Civil War Centennial Commission presented Halle’s with its Achievement Award for its valiant effort.[62] Store executives, in cooperation with WHK-radio, sponsored a new contest they called the “Miss Teenage Cleveland of 1961.”  Its winner received $500 in store merchandise and a fully chaperoned trip to the national finals in Dallas, TX.

All these community activities and special promotions benefited this local retailer.  Even though Halle’s earnings in 1960 dipped to $870,534 or $1.73 a common share as compared to $1,418,351 or $3.46 a common share the previous year, stock analysts expressed little concern.  They attributed this downturn in sales to the current recession.  Halle’s net capital, at the end of that year, increased from $14,350,171 to $15,210,514.  Such things as liquidating over $1,000,000 in slow moving items and converting the store’s accounting system from conventional means to electronic recording led to further losses.  However, Halle’s losses paled when compared to their competitors.  Overall, Cleveland department store sales that year had dropped by 21%.[63]

Attempting to recoup these earlier losses proved far harder than was first imagined.  Store officials tried to reverse this downward trend in sales by introducing new, innovative items throughout the 1961-62 shopping season.  They ranged from two speed automatic dish washers and electrically-controlled television antennas to electric food processors and easy-clean vinyl wallpaper.  Halle’s 7th floor art gallery, for the first time, sold framed and unframed paintings ranging in price from $2.00 to $2,000.[64]  Executives also offered a special package deal during the Christmas season.  Customers now could rent a room in the nearby Statler Hotel from 11:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. for only $4.00 a day.  Store officials saw it as an opportunity for shoppers to relax in a comfortable hotel room between visits to Halle’s.  That low price not only included the room, but also, parking at the Hanna Garage and delivery of all packages purchased that day at Halle’s.  The store also offered a baby-sitting service for $1.00 per hour.[65]

Board members, in February 1962, approved plans to construct a new branch store in Cleveland Hts., OH.[66] A part of the 151-acre shopping complex called Severance Center, this full-service operation opened the following year.  Raymond Loewy designed it.[67] This new store featured a beige brick exterior veneer highlighted by a pastel geometric pattern placed above its main entrance.  Unsubstantiated rumors, at the time, suggested that Severance Center might become Cleveland’s new fashion hub.  The press praised Walter M. Halle for his enthusiastic support of this project.  Halle’s, in March 1962, opened an organ studio at its new 3,200 square foot store located at the Shore Center Drive Shopping Center in Euclid, OH.[68]

Halle’s, during the 1962 shopping season, offered a wide variety of new items and contests.  Its Epicure Shop, for example, now included specialty foods shipped from S.S. Pierce in Boston, MA.[69] Store executives also hosted a special contest called “That Touch of Mink.”  Winners received a trip to Bermuda and quality luggage.  The “Come to the Treasure Hunt” contest, a part of the annual downtown summer festival, included a wide range of special store prizes and gift certificates.  “Cleveland and the World Fair,” that October, offered nearly 3,000 lbs. of merchandise from Europe.[70]

Store sales, in 1962, rose slightly to $49,851,261 as compared to $49,524,119 one year earlier.  Net earnings also increased slightly to $1,050,710 or $2.13 per common share vs. $1,043,680 or $2.11 per common share in 1961.[71]  Halle’s, that year, reduced its long-term debt to $5,214,000 from $5,851,715.  Fortunately, the recent slump in sales ended the following year.  A rebounding economy enabled Halle’s, in 1963, to break all previous sales records.  Sales topped $53,472,001 as compared to $49,851,261 the previous year.  Net earnings also climbed to $1,120,242 or $2.30 per common share.  Halle’s net capital increased slightly to $15,592,278 vs. $15,574,551 in 1962, while its long-term debt decreased to $4,849,000.  That represented a $365,000 decrease from the 1962 level.[72]

Exciting new store promotions highlighted the mid-1960s.  Customers of all ages loved the new, fun-filled ski package to Clear Fork State Park.[73] Coin collectors flocked to Halle Brothers new money store where they could talk with experts in this field.  Expanded credit options provided even more customers the opportunity to participate in installment buying.  Under this new arrangement, shoppers could take up to 12-months to pay-off their debt.  Those wishing to extend their payment time had to either pay a small additional service charge for this courtesy or place their purchases in layaway until the balance had been paid-off.[74]

Store officials, in August 1964, sponsored a special table setting contest called the “Ten Best-Dressed Tables.”[75] Winners received a free trip to the nationals in New York along with a cash prize of $1,000.  The new Discovery Shop provided customers with a full array of merchandise ranging from inexpensive knickknacks to high priced apparel.  Halle’s shareholders, in 1965, approved an amendment to the store’s corporate charter that permitted it to operate any kind of business under Ohio law.[76] President Walter M. Halle argued that the ever-changing department store industry mandated this change.  However, analysts, at that time, questioned the wisdom of such a move based on the fact that Halle’s had just experienced its best year ever.

With the idea of capturing a larger percentage of the Cleveland retail trade, board members, in 1965, spent over $1,000,000 to update downtown and Westgate facilities.[77]  Renovations at the Euclid Avenue store included power cleaning its terra-cotta facade and remodeling the shoe department.  The closing of the Garden Spot at Westgate provided an additional 5,000 square feet of floor space at that outlet.  Relocating its stock room added another 12,000 square feet.

On the heels of these efforts, executives announced plans to construct a new $2,500,000, 113,000 square foot suburban store in Akron’s Summit Mall.[78] Halle’s, in January 1966, publicized its new golf school and renovation plans for its University Height, OH store.  Halle Brothers, that same year, paid $.25 on common stock, $.60 on preferred stock and $.75 on a second preferred stock option.  A 1966 retail study indicated that over 50% of Halle’s sales emanated from its branch stores, and that 6% of its shoppers lived outside Cleveland.  Employee morale, in the mid-1960s, remained very positive.  In fact, 70% of the store’s employees rated Halle’s as a better than average work place.  They also enjoyed their 20% discount on store merchandise and the no compulsory retirement clause in their contracts.

The store’s President Chisholm Halle (1933-1982), speaking at a Cleveland Advertising Club luncheon, discussed the critical need for both federal officials and private investors to come together and solve the current blight facing urban America.  Mr. Halle believed that Cleveland’s future growth depended on a viable downtown, and that Halle’s Department Store would do whatever it could to make this happen.  He then suggested several ways to improve downtown.  His recommendations ranged from building more quality residential units and creating additional office space to promoting new parks and constructing safer highways.  Halle further pointed out that all the major downtown department stores paid their employees over $100,000,000 in wages annually.  He concluded by saying that Halle’s, in 1966, paid $1,426,000 in state and local taxes and donated $103,000 towards charitable causes.[79]

Halle Brothers, also in 1966, teamed up with Playskool and Field Enterprises to promote quality play materials for children.  The store’s book store, beginning in 1967, offered a special service for Cleveland teachers whereby students who lost their assigned reading lists could now obtain another one from Halle’s at no additional cost.[80] Store officials also initiated driving lessons for teenagers and beauty workshops for young women.[81] Halle’s, in the autumn of 1967, sponsored a Cleveland Exploration Photography Contest plus a fashion show that commemorated the 100th anniversary of Harper’s Bazaar magazine.[82]

Shoppers responded positively to the many promotional activities and services offered by this retailer.  Halle reported that its 1966 sales exceeded $65,283,040.  Earnings that year reached the third highest level ever at $1,270,999 or $2.81 per share.  Sales volume also increased by 5% over the previous year.  Halle’s reduced its inventory by $1,499,502, while its net capital topped $16,420,510.  Common stock equity in 1966 increased $2.60 from $56.36 to $58.96 per share.[83]

Nineteen sixty-seven presented a different financial picture.  Mounting deficit, inventory shortages and decreasing sales greatly concerned board members.  Rumors began to circulate that Walter M. Halle intended to sell the store as soon as possible.  However, few analysts paid much attention to these rumors until stockholders, in May 1968, decided to reissue common stock.  This action increased the number of shares from 500,000 to 1,500,000 shares.  Halle’s stockholders, at that same meeting, also approved issuing 200,000 shares of new serial preferred stock.[84]

Rumors of a pending sale notwithstanding, the store’s daily activities continued.  Halle’s in conjunction with the Little Italy Development Corporation co-sponsored its first annual benefit for Cleveland’s Little Italy.  Called “The Two Worlds of Italy,” this October 11, 1968 benefit collected $10,000.[85]  Proceeds went towards the rejuvenation of Little Italy, one of the city’s oldest ethnic neighborhoods.  The Halle Brothers Company, in July 1968, launched its-own special training sessions for its salespersons in housewares.[86] Several of Halle’s suburban stores, in 1969, added cocktails to their restaurant menus.[87]

Promotional activities, during the 1968 shopping season, helped Halle’s to recoup some of its earlier losses.  The store, that year, broke all previous sales records at $67,900,000.  This represented a 5.3% increase over the previous year.  Earnings reached $1,030,955 equal to $2.27 per share as compared to $974,700 equal to $2.09 per share in 1967.[88] Halle’s, that June, built two more retail complexes one at Belden Village in Canton, OH and the other adjacent to Great Lakes Mall in Mentor, OH.

The board also renovated one of its two Erie, PA outlets along with its Shaker Hts. and Westgate stores.  In the case of Westgate, officials approved a 45,000 square foot third-story.[89] Halle’s board members also constructed a 400,000 square foot service center on Rockside Road.  The board mentioned no future plans for expanding Severance Center.   Severance Center remained open until the 1990s.  An open air shopping center replaced it in 1998.  It included an Office Max, Bally Total Fitness Center, Conway Fashions and A.J. Wright.

Halle Brothers, in 1970, introduced a new method for paying bills by phone.  Under this arrangement, customers authorized their banks to transfer funds automatically from their accounts or lines of credit to Halle’s.[90]  It became very popular.  Store sales reached a new all-time record of $70,600,000.  That represented a 4% increase from 1968 levels.  Unfortunately, that increase in sales did not result in greater profits.  Mounting expenses due to higher employee wages and growing payroll taxes along with the dissolution of the partnership with Playskool and Field Enterprises negated any potential profit gains.  The high expenses incurred by the refurbishing of the Westgate store only added to this predicament.  Net income in 1969 was a measly $112,350.  That resulted in a 2% drop in the value of common stock that year.[91]

Would another retailer be interested in purchasing Halle’s or would this store be forced to declare bankruptcy?  It was anyone’s guess during the last months of 1969.  The winter of 1970 showed respectable sales gains.  However, Halle employees knew that change was coming soon.  Halle’s officials, on June 25, 1970, announced that Chicago-based Marshall Fields & Co. had just purchased this seventy-nine year old department store.  Board members emphasized that Marshall Fields possessed both the professional expertise and vast financial resources necessary to bring Halle’s into the next generation.

Comparisons between the two stores supported the board’s contention.  Marshall Fields employed 17,500, while Halle’s had a staff of 3,500.  Net sales for Marshall Fields & Company, in 1969, topped $402,506,707, while Halle’s reached $70,680,476.  In terms of assets, this giant Chicago retailer led at $243,873,854, while Cleveland’s-own trailed far behind at $40,669,868.[92] Halle’s board members knew what they must do.  The merger occurred on November 30, 1970.[93]   Cleveland’s media praised Walter M. Halle for his commitment to the store that bore his family’s name.  However, the time had come for change.  Under this merger agreement, Marshall Fields & Company bought Halle stock on a “share-for-share basis.”  This transfer involved about $10,000,000 and the Cleveland store retained its name.  This merger prompted some major innovations.

The “new and improved” Halle’s now extended its Phone-In-Hotline hours to 24 hours a day, seven days a week.[94] It also sponsored a special “Sewing Festival.”  The Arts League of Parma, OH, in October 1970, showed its support of this merger by hosting a special exhibition at the Southland store.  This exhibition featured the works of 150 artists from throughout Northeast Ohio.[95] Nineteen seventy ended with a special demonstration on “Eating Out at Home;” three hours of free parking downtown and a new music exhibition.

Marshall Fields, in March 1971, approved extensive renovations within its downtown facility.  Officials hoped to increase sales in luxury items.[96] This refurbishing effort included repainting the interior, updating bathrooms, modernizing display cases and installing state-of-the-art lighting.[97] Modifications in operational services also occurred.  Store officials also renewed bus service between the Euclid Avenue store and Terminal Tower.  Halle’s sales figures increased to $103,137,000 by mid-year.[98] Unfortunately, that increase in sales did not last.  A sluggish economy, in the autumn of 1971, prompted further losses.  However, this downturn did not seem to faze the store’s new owner.

A December 1970 study released by the Greater Cleveland Growth Association pointed out that over 128,000 persons worked downtown and that they overwhelmingly enjoyed shopping in big department stores.  Analysts at the Growth Association sincerely hoped that large downtown retailers, such as Marshall Fields, would continue to provide them with the best possible merchandise at reasonable prices.  The Growth Association study concluded with a warning.  Those downtown retailers offering the best value will survive and prosper, while less dedicated stores will soon disappear.  The leaders at Marshall Fields & Company expressed every confident that they could meet the expectations of their Cleveland customer-base.

That sense of confidence led Marshall Fields & Company to sponsor a number of successful promotional events including two in April 1972.  Both the “All-American Geranium Fair” and “Come to the Fair” drew hundreds downtown.[99] Even though profits increased during the 1972-73 shopping season, they did not reach earlier projected goals.  Hoping to accelerate sales quickly, Marshall Fields, in June 1973, added a new budget clothing department at its Severance, Southland and Westgate stores.[100] Further renovations downtown and a new beauty salon at Westgate brought more shoppers.[101]

The death of Walter M. Halle, in January 1972, saddened Halle’s employees and the Greater Cleveland business community.  A respected retailer and philanthropist for over thirty years, Mr. Halle had played an instrumental role in the recent merger.  After graduating, in 1927, from Princeton University, he served as Halle’s General Manager of Merchandise.  With the outbreak of the Second World War, Walter M. Halle became a Lieutenant Colonel in the Army Air Corp.

The Board of Directors, immediately following the war, appointed Mr. Halle its President.  He took over from his father Samuel Halle.  Walter M. Halle held that post from 1946 until 1966 when he became Board Chairman.  A distinguished leader in civic and philanthropic organizations such as the Greater Cleveland Growth Association; Cleveland Trust Bank, United Appeal and Ohio Retail Merchant Association, Mr. Halle never walked away from a challenge.  He wanted Cleveland to grow and prosper and he did everything within his power to make that happen.[102]

Hoping to bolster sales with Baby Boomers, Halle’s, in 1975, hired a prominent Cleveland advertising agency Meldrum & Fewsmith to coordinate its broadcasts and printed materials.[103] The store sponsored, that same year, a bicycle contest for children.  It also added Lladro figurines to its glassware department.  Store officials also introduced a do-it-yourself art corner with a wide variety of precut metal frames, mats, Plexiglas and box frames.[104] The big question, in 1976, was whether or not the board should invest in a new branch store at Randall Park Mall?  The mall’s developer Edward J. DeBartolo had saved a prime site for this retailer.[105] Following some discussion, Marshall Fields turned his offer down.  Store officials claimed that they had enough stores.

Nineteen seventy-seven began with a new menu at Halle’s restaurants.  More emphasizes placed on healthy foods at reasonable prices.  Halle’s, that March, hosted a special benefit for the Playhouse Square foundation.  Called “The Grand Tour,” each floor of the Euclid Avenue facility featured food, drink and music from different cities.  Tickets ranged from $7.50 to $25.00.  They sold 900 tickets.  Both the golf clinics and driving schools remained popular with customers as did etiquette classes for children.  The introduction of the Wine of the Month Club brought additional shoppers downtown.

Unfortunately, all these promotional activities failed to significantly improve Halle’s financial slate.  The store never fully rebounded from the merger.  Customers, increasingly, took their business elsewhere.  Shopper complaints ranged from unfair pricing and shoddy merchandise to abrupt salespersons and unreasonable return policies.  Shrinking profits and mounting debt led Marshall Fields to take stringent action.  The Board of Directors announced, in January 1977, that they were cutting store hours in all branch stores.[106] They claimed that the current energy crunch prompted this decision.

However, other retailers were not convinced that the energy crunch was the reason behind their action.  Some theorized that Marshall Fields planned to close Halle’s.  The appearance of cheap imported merchandise, beginning in the summer of 1977, lent credence to this idea although Marshall Field executives vehemently denied it.  Store officials claimed that the crippling dock strike in New York City, earlier that same year, had slowed down deliveries of high quality imports.[107] Many shoppers expressed outrage when Mr. Jingeling, a staple of Cleveland Christmas since the mid-1950s, was cut from the Halle’s calendar.  What was going on?[108]

Behind the scenes, a large Californian retail chain Carter, Hawley, & Hale had approached Marshall Fields about a possible merger.  This West Coast conglomerate operated more than seventy stores including Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus and the Walden Books chain.  Carter Hawley wanted a tax-free 49% exchange in stock at $36.00 a share.  Marshall Fields & Company took a dim view of this offer.  Considered it an attempted hostile takeover, Marshall Fields’ filed a law suit against Carter Hawley with the U.S. District Court in Chicago.  Attorneys representing the Chicago retailer claimed that the terms of the merger represented a direct violation of federal antitrust laws.  Specifically, they said it would be a restraint of trade in that in some places Marshall Fields would be competing head-to-head against one of its-own store namely Neiman Marcus.[109]  The District Court found in favor of Marshall Fields and merger plans were dropped.

However, this favorable court decision symbolized a hollow victory for Marshall Field.  Halle’s profits were marginal.  Its central management team in Cleveland was not provided customers with the kind of affordable, high quality merchandise they demanded.  The Board of Directors, in October 1978, took bold action and called for the reorganization of Halle’s.  They turned over store operations to a new dual management team who they believed would make Halle’s profitable again.  These new managers began by evaluating the store’s strengths and weaknesses.  They next conducted informal customer surveys to determine what shoppers really needed and wanted.  The conclusions derived from this evaluation process served as the basis for corporate policy decisions for the next three years.  They also determined no further expansion.  Instead, the local management team would focus its attention on improving existing facilities with one noticeable exception.  Earlier plans calling for the construction of a new store in the Sandusky Mall in Perkins Township, OH would proceed as scheduled.  These managers also decided to revitalize the downtown store.  That meant not only modernizing the Euclid Avenue facility itself; but also, updating its lines of merchandise to better reflect the changing needs and wants of today’s customers.

The team at Marshall Fields’ firmly believed that practical products not luxury items, represented the future for Halle’s.  They reached that conclusion after reviewing a host of other successful national retail chains such as Sears & Roebuck.  In the case of Sears, their leadership did not challenge other profitable middle and upper class department stores.  Instead, it concentrated on selling affordable merchandise including no-frills appliances, durable home furnishings and quality tools.  The “Softer Side of Sears” may have been that store’s latest promotional campaign; however, it was secondary when measured against its financial mainstay, everyday necessities.  Perhaps Marshall Fields might learn a lesson from Sears and adopt a similar business strategy for Halle’s.  Discussions, like these, continued for several years.

Halle’s sales in 1979 picked up slightly with expensive items such as home entertainment centers setting the trend that year.  Traditional big sellers such as fine jewelry and expensive furs did not fare as well.  Marshall Fields attempted to offset mounting losses by bringing back “The World of Wedgewood” pottery collection at a reasonable price.[110] The Board of Directors, behind the scenes, began to weigh future options.[111] One viable option involved expanding Halle’s into the Columbus market area.  It called for Marshall Fields to acquire six specialty stores at an estimated value of $8,000,000.  However, the board in Chicago considered such a venture too risky.

They fully understood that Halle’s was losing money at a feverous pace.  The question facing them was what to do about it?  The closing, in 1961, of Taylor’s Department Store followed by Bailey’s, Bonwit Teller’s and Sterling-Lindner’s, in the late 1960s, signaled tough times ahead for those stores who survived.  Racially-charged riots in the Hough and Glenville neighborhoods, during the mid and late-1960s, sent shock waves throughout the community including the local retail sector.  Increasingly, Cleveland customers abandoned traditional downtown stores for newer suburban outlets.

Like most of its competitors, Marshall Fields assumed that Halle’s would continue to play a dominate role in local retailing for many years to come.  Of more immediate concern to the Board of Directors was how to reverse this current slide in sales without jeopardizing the future prospects of this retailer?  Specifically, should the board infuse great amounts of capital to insure Halle’s survival or would it make more sense to try and sell it or even close it?  It was anyone’s guess as to what these leaders might do.

No one could have predicted, with any certainty, the economic and social upheavals of the 1970s and 1980s, let alone how that turmoil would impact local and national buying habits.  Marshall Fields’ really had no idea of what lay ahead.  How could they?  They practiced what they knew best: traditional retailing.  Their enthusiasm regarding the area’s unlimited growth potential, so apparent in their actions and thoughts, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, all but evaporated over the next twenty years.  In its wake, a new, unnerving pessimism permeated the national retail scene.  With no business precedents to guide them through this mine field, it literally stopped them in their tracks.  In Halle’s case, crushing debt and dwindling profits resulted in a seemingly endless downward economic slide.  The immediate post-war years characterized by high profit levels, reasonable debt levels and seemingly endless opportunities for growth and expansion were now only a dim memory.

Cleveland’s retail market, by the mid-1970s, was utterly saturated.  There were far just too many shopping centers and malls.  A shrinking population, growing inflation and uncertain economic prospects for the immediate future did not bode well for traditional department stores such as Halle’s.  Increasingly, Halle’s found itself competing against other, similar stores for a piece of a dwindling retail pie.  Fierce competition from regional discount department stores made this situation even more tenuous.

Crushing debt increasingly eroded sales gains.  Yet, store owners, during the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Walter M. Halle remained resilient.  Mr. Halle firmly believed that a little financial belt tightening would solve the store’s current financial dilemma.  The question was not whether such actions were prudent, especially given the changing complexities of the local economic scene; but rather, if such actions, in themselves, were sufficient to accomplish the task at hand? Like so many of its competitors, Halle’s executives believed that they could recoup their losses by simply closing unprofitable branches, cutting the sales force and offering cheaper merchandise.  Their 1969 slogan reflected this new attitude, “Today’s Halle’s is Building for a Greater Tomorrow with an Eye on the Traditions of Yesterday.”  At first, this new business approach seemed to be working.  In fact, store sales from 1969-70 rebounded.  However, these gains soon disappeared.  The growing financial complexities of operating a modern retail chain overwhelmed the Halle family.  Facing bankruptcy, they merged with Marshall Fields & Company.

This Chicago retailer, as stated earlier, renovated the downtown store and introducing affordable fashions.  Unfortunately, anticipated sales gains based on these initial actions never materialized.  Unable to reach their goals, Marshall Fields, in March 1981, sold Halle’s for $27,000,000 to Associated Investors Corporation.  It was under the leadership of a Columbus-based developer named Jerome Schottenstein (1926-1992).[112] Brown & Williamson, a subsidiary of the British-American Tobacco Company, in 1982, purchased Marshall Fields.  It later reverted to Frederick & Nelson and Crescent Investments and then Dayton-Hudson (Target).  The May Company, in 2004, bought it.  Federated acquired it in 2005 and made it a Macy’s.

In terms of the Halle purchase, Jerome Schottenstein was certainly not a stranger to retailing.  He owned and operated the successful Value City Discount Department Store chain.[113] Local newspapers hoped that Schottenstein would be able to save Halle’s.  The press noted that this 90-year old institution had survived both the Great Depression of the 1930s and post-war suburban migration to become a nationally-recognized store.  Surely, it could survive this latest round of financial reversals.  Schottenstein intended to convert Halle’s into one of the area’s leading discount department store.

However, before that could happen, the new owner set about to review present conditions and make some major changes.  He also suggested the possibility of staff layoffs; reduced inventories, store closings and merchandise rebranding.  Schottenstein said that it would take some time, but he was sure it was worth it.  However, behind the scenes things were not so rosy.

Unable to secure the necessary capital, Jerome Schottenstein, in January 1982, closed the downtown store along with Severance Center, Shaker Square and Southland.  He also shut down branches in Canton, OH; Chillicothe, OH; Erie, PA and Sandusky, OH.[114] However, the Summit and Westgate stores remained opened due to the prodding of his Executive Vice President Barbara Ragen.  The local press praised Schottenstein and Ragen for their efforts.[115]  Salvaging two stores was certainly better than closing all of them.  Unfortunately, their optimism soon changed to pessimism.

Jerome Schottenstein, that August, closed Westgate; fired Ms. Ragen and transferred the Summit Mall store to Higbee’s.[116] That action marked the end of Halle’s.  Forest City Enterprises, later in the 1980s, renovated the Euclid Avenue landmark.  The upper floors became prime office space, while small shops and a food court occupied the street and basement levels.  Halle’s may be gone, but its legacy lives on in the heart of many Clevelanders.

 

Endnotes

  1. James M. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, (Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987), 12.
  2. “Look at Our Stock Before Going Elsewhere,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 19, 1897.
  3. “Gay Spring Things, A Suburb Exhibition of Women’s Tailored Garments Shown at Halle Bros’ Opening,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 17, 1898.
  4. “Euclid Scene of Two Great Deals,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 29, 1908.
  5. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, 69.
  6. Ibid. 12.
  7. “A Shoppers’ Calendar, Friday April 16th,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 16, 1915.
  8. “Excellent Shoes at $6.00 and $7.00,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 23, 1917.
  9. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, 13.
  10. “Radio Fashion Talk,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 5, 1928. “National Bridge Tourney in Cleveland This Week,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 18, 1928.
  11. W. Ward Marsh, “Cleveland is Background for Lake’s Comedy,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 7, 1933.
  12. Time Magazine, June 6, 1927.
  13. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, 136.
  14. “The Halle Bros. Co, Babies Are Sure of a Great Start,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 10, 1935.
  15. “American Express Travel Service in Halle Store Now,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 2, 1941.
  16. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, 157.
  17. Guy T. Rockwell, “Halle’s ’41 Unit Sales Were Best in History,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 10, 1942.
  18. Guy T. Rockwell, “Halle Sales Set New High, but Earnings Gain is Slight,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 13, 1945.
  19. Wood, Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store, 182.
  20. “Recognition Day Comes for Vets Back at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 2, 1946.
  21. “Halle’s to Display ‘Shah of Persia,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 23, 1950.
  22. “Giant Music and Dance Fete to Aid Charities,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 20, 1955.
  23. “Telephone Shopping Service Makes a Move,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 25, 1946.
  24. “Enroll Now in Halle’s New Silver Budget Plan,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 16, 1950.
  25. “Halle’s to Open Store in Heights,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 15, 1947. “New Halle Store is Flexible, Vital,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 24, 1948.
  26. “Big Halle Store to Adorn Suburb, Rocky River Branch Plans Parking for 500 Autos,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 17, 1948.
  27. “Ground Breaking Due at Halle’s in Fairview,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 9, 1952.
  28. “Obituaries, Salmon P. Chase,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 14, 1949.
  29. “Halle Bros. Previews Second Suburban Store Weds,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 31, 1950.
  30. “Halle’s to Build New Canton Store,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 19, 1951.
  31. Aiden C. Rider, “Halle to Expand Operations Here,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 10, 1955.
  32. “Southland’s Halle Store Opens February 5, Newest and Largest of Four Branches,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 25, 1957.
  33. Peter B. Greenough, “Halle Building Plan Climaxed: West Wing to Open All Doors, The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 27, 1949.
  34. “Halle’s Expansion of Store on Euclid to Cost Million,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 4, 1955. John E. Bryan, “Halle to Offer $1,500,000 of New Preferred Stock,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1955.
  35. “Samuel H. Halle Rites Tomorrow Memorial Service to Be Held in Store’s Lounge,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 12, 1954.
  36. “Halle’s Is Opening Remodeled Store,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 12, 1954.
  37. “Welfare Levy Considered a Must, $1,250,000 for Election Board Building,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 27, 1957.
  38. John E. Bryan, “Halle Annual Net Income Advances to $3.08 a Share,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 27, 1954.
  39. “Premier of Bride’s Week at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 1, 1950.
  40. “Halle’s Camp Bureau Open April 7th Through April 12th,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 6, 1952.
  41. “,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 15, 1952. “Exhibition June 2nd through June 7th Nine Modern Artists,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 1, 1952.
  42. “Judge 700 Dolls in Halle Contest,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 25, 1952.
  43. “See Prize-Winning Rooms of Halle’s Model Teen Room Contest,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 5, 1953.
  44. “Royal Typewriting Co. Offers Typing Classes,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 28, 1953. “Art Carnival for Shaker Square,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 13, 1953.
  45. “Porter Heaps in a Seminar for Organists,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 28, 1952.
  46. Oscar A. Bergman, “Along the Buy-Lines in Stores and Shops,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 9, 1953.
  47. “All Dressed Up,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 9, 1955.
  48. “Meet Miss Joan Murchison Pan American World Airways Stewardess,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer,” February 5, 1953.
  49. “First Mint Elizabeth II Coins,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1953.
  50. “Halle’s Will Hand-blend a Regular Box of Antoine Face Powder,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 22, 1953.
  51. “Introducing Halle’s Own Continental Collection of the World’s Finest Ties,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 23, 1952. “Halle’s Finest Clocks Measure Your Happiest Moments,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 15, 1952.
  52. “Halle’s Import Bazaar,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 21, 1958.
  53. “Planning a Trip?” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 11, 1960.
  54. “Kashmoor, The Coats You Can Count On,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 26, 1954.
  55. “Going On at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 14, 1954.
  56. “Westgate Halle’s Is Careful After Girl Scout Fete,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 12, 1955.
  57. “The Halle Bros Co,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 7, 1957.
  58. “Two Activities Set By West Side Group,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 18, 1960.
  59. “You’ll Enjoy Reading News of the Week in Cleveland 100 Years Ago,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 16, 1960.
  60. “Going On at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 15, 1961.
  61. “Civil War at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 4, 1961. “Civil War Films Showing at Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 10, 1961.
  62. “Plain Dealer, Halle’s Honored by Civil War Unit,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1962.
  63. “Sales, Earnings Down for Halle’s; Capital Added,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1961.
  64. Cecil Relihan, “The Home Front, What’s New for Your Man’s Castle?” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 25, 1961. Paul B. Metzler, “Halle’s Art Show,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 22, 1961.
  65. “Hotel, Store Set Shoppers Rest Break,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 21, 1961.
  66. Adin C. Rider, “Severance Center to Have Bazaar Air,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 25, 1962.
  67. “New Tearoom Reflects Spirit of the late Mrs. Samuel Halle,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 4, 1963.
  68. “Halle’s to Open Organ Studio,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 1, 1962.
  69. “Serve Up Delicious Summer Meals Easily with Specialties from Halle’s,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 28, 1962.
  70. “Up and Down the Aisles,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 15, 1962. “Come to the Treasure Hunt.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 23, 1962. “Plane Brings Halle’s Goods from Europe,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 1962.
  71. John E. Bryan, “Halle’s Lists Slight Gains,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 23, 1963.
  72. John E. Bryan, “Halle’s Sales Hit Highest Ever in Past Year; Profits Up Too,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1964.
  73. “Register Now for Halle’s Ski Week-end and Trophy Race,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 19, 1964.
  74. “Choose from Five Halle Purchase Plans,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 13, 1964.
  75. Janet Beighle, “Black and White Theme Judged Tops in Table Setting Contest,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 6, 1964.
  76. “Business Briefs, Halle’s Moves to Diversify,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1965.
  77. “Halle’s Bros. Spending $1 Million on Two Stores,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 13, 1965.
  78. Douglas Bloomfield, “Dry Run Gusher; Halle Opens in Summit,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 15, 1965.
  79. “Too Little, Too Late Halle Rates War on Decay,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 12, 1967.
  80. “Paperbacks on Summer Readings Lists for Senior High and College Students,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 5, 1967.
  81. “Hot Line of Happenings,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 25, 1967. “Hot Line of Happenings,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 9, 1967.
  82. “Fun Day Fashions,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 15, 1967.
  83. John E, Bryan, “Halle Expects Year-End Sale Surge,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 22, 1967.
  84. “Halle Denies Merger Rumor,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 21, 1968.
  85. “Big Plans for Little Italy,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 12, 1968.
  86. “Halle’s Forum, Insuring Satisfied Customer,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 1968.
  87. “Suburbia,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 7, 1969.
  88. “Halle’s is Expanding; ’68 Sales Set Record,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 15, 1969.
  89. Ibid.
  90. John E. Bryan, “Profit Gain Due, Cleveland Trust Told,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 17, 1970.
  91. John E. Bryan, “Sales at Peak but Halle Reports Loss,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 30, 1970.
  92. John J. Cleary, “Halle Bros. To Be Sold to Marshall Field & Company.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 25, 1970.
  93. Robert Stock, “Stores Hopeful but Concerned,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 11, 1971.
  94. “Caldwell’s Half Sizes Brushed Jewel Jerseys,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 9, 1970.
  95. “Cooper Debut for Akron Two,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 27, 1970.
  96. Michael Kelly, “Retailers Hopeful of Last-Minute Selling Spree,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 22, 1970.
  97. Michael Kelly, “Halle’s Downtown Launches First-Floor Part of Big Renovations,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 25, 1971.
  98. John E, Bryan, “Halle Gets Credit for Field Gain,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 31, 1971.
  99. “Halle’s Will Run a Spring Geranium Fair,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 2, 1972.
  100. “Halle’s Adds Budget Clothing Sessions,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 13, 1972.
  101. Paula Slimak, “Hair Stylist’s Color Technique Based on Natural Overtones,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 18, 1972.
  102. “Walter M. Halle, 66, Dies,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 11, 1972.
  103. “Halle Appoints an Ad Agency,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1975.
  104. “It’s All New, Halle’s Picture Framing,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 5, 1976.
  105. “Randall Park Mall Opens Doors Today,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 11, 1976.
  106. “Public Square Announcement to Halle Customers,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 19, 1977.
  107. Michael Kelly, “Dreaming of a Green Christmas, How Sweet the Sound of Ash Register Bells,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 21, 1977.
  108. Tom Green, “Santa Claus is Alive and Well and Living in Cleveland Downtown,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 9, 1977.
  109. “Marshall Field Opposes Merger Plan,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 13, 1977.
  110. “The World of Wedgewood,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 3, 1976.
  111. “Halle to Acquire Six-Store Chain in Columbus,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 8, 1980.
  112. “Sale of Halle’s is Now Complete,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 8, 1981.
  113. Donald Sabath, “Halle’s Sold but Its Name Remains,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 18, 1981.
  114. John Fuller and Donald Sabath, “Six Halle’s Spared; One at Westgate,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 29, 1982.
  115. Fran Arman, “Halle’s Manager Refuses to Let City Institution Perish,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 19, 1982.
  116. John Fuller and John Lee Koshar, “Higbee Co. to Get Halle’s Store,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 12, 1982. Donald Sabath, John Fuller and Mary Strassmeyer, “Rumors Say Halle’s to Close All Five Stores, The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 2, 1982. John Fuller, “Halle’s Chief, Ragan, fired by Jerome Shottenstein, The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 3, 1982.

  1. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987, pp. 12.
  2. “Look at Our Stock Before Going Elsewhere.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 19, 1897.
  3. “Gay Spring Things, A Suburb Exhibition of Women’s Tailored Garments Shown at Halle Bros’ Opening.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 17, 1898.
  4. “Euclid Scene of Two Great Deals.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 29, 1908.
  5. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987, pp. 69.
  6. Ibid. pp. 12.
  7. “A Shoppers’ Calendar, Friday April 16th.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 16, 1915.
  8. “Excellent Shoes at $6.00 and $7.00.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 23, 1917.
  9. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987, pp. 13.
  10. “Radio Fashion Talk.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 5, 1928. “National Bridge Tourney in Cleveland This Week.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 18, 1928.
  11. Marsh, W. Ward. “Cleveland is Background for Lake’s Comedy.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 7, 1933.
  12. Time Magazine, June 6, 1927.
  13. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987, pp. 136.
  14. “The Halle Bros. Co, Babies Are Sure of a Great Start.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 10, 1935.
  15. “American Express Travel Service in Halle Store Now.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 2, 1941.
  16. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. pp. 157.
  17. Rockwell, Guy T. “Halle’s ’41 Unit Sales Were Best in History.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 10, 1942.
  18. Rockwell, Guy T. “Halle Sales Set New High, but Earnings Gain is Slight.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 13, 1945.
  19. Wood, James M. Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store. Cleveland: Germaine Press, 1987, pp. 182.
  20. “Recognition Day Comes for Vets Back at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 2, 1946.
  21. “Halle’s to Display ‘Shah of Persia.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 23, 1950.
  22. “Giant Music and Dance Fete to Aid Charities.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 20, 1955.
  23. “Telephone Shopping Service Makes a Move.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 25, 1946.
  24. “Enroll Now in Halle’s New Silver Budget Plan.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 16, 1950.
  25. “Halle’s to Open Store in Heights.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 15, 1947. “New Halle Store is Flexible, Vital.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 24, 1948.
  26. “Big Halle Store to Adorn Suburb, Rocky River Branch Plans Parking for 500 Autos.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 17, 1948.
  27. “Ground Breaking Due at Halle’s in Fairview.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 9, 1952.
  28. “Obituaries, Salmon P. Chase.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 14, 1949.
  29. “Halle Bros. Previews Second Suburban Store Weds.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 31, 1950.
  30. “Halle’s to Build New Canton Store.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 19, 1951.
  31. Rider, Aiden C. “Halle to Expand Operations Here.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 10, 1955.
  32. “Southland’s Halle Store Opens February 5, Newest and Largest of Four Branches.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 25, 1957.
  33. Greenough, Peter B. “Halle Building Plan Climaxed: West Wing to Open All Doors.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 27, 1949.
  34. “Halle’s Expansion of Store on Euclid to Cost Million.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 4, 1955. Bryan, John E. “Halle to Offer $1,500,000 of New Preferred Stock.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1955.
  35. “Samuel H. Halle Rites Tomorrow Memorial Service to Be Held in Store’s Lounge.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 12, 1954.
  36. “Halle’s Is Opening Remodeled Store.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 12, 1954.
  37. “Welfare Levy Considered a Must, $1,250,000 for Election Board Building.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 27, 1957.
  38. Bryan, John E. “Halle Annual Net Income Advances to $3.08 a Share.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 27, 1954.
  39. “Premier of Bride’s Week at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 1, 1950.
  40. “Halle’s Camp Bureau Open April 7th Through April 12th.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 6, 1952.
  41. The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 15, 1952. “Exhibition June 2nd through June 7th Nine Modern Artists.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 1, 1952.
  42. “Judge 700 Dolls in Halle Contest.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 25, 1952.
  43. “See Prize-Winning Rooms of Halle’s Model Teen Room Contest,” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 5, 1953.
  44. “Royal Typewriting Co. Offers Typing Classes.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 28, 1953. “Art Carnival for Shaker Square.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 13, 1953.
  45. “Porter Heaps in a Seminar for Organists.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 28, 1952.
  46. Bergman, Oscar A. “Along the Buy-Lines in Stores and Shops.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 9, 1953.
  47. “All Dressed Up.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 9, 1955.
  48. “Meet Miss Joan Murchison Pan American World Airways Stewardess.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 5, 1953.
  49. “First Mint Elizabeth II Coins.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1953.
  50. “Halle’s Will Hand-blend a Regular Box of Antoine Face Powder.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 22, 1953.
  51. “Introducing Halle’s Own Continental Collection of the World’s Finest Ties.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 23, 1952. “Halle’s Finest Clocks Measure Your Happiest Moments.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 15, 1952.
  52. “Halle’s Import Bazaar.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 21, 1958.
  53. “Planning a Trip?” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 11, 1960.
  54. “Kashmoor, The Coats You Can Count On.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 26, 1954.
  55. “Going On at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 14, 1954.
  56. “Westgate Halle’s Is Careful After Girl Scout Fete.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 12, 1955.
  57. “The Halle Bros Co.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 7, 1957.
  58. “Two Activities Set By West Side Group.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 18, 1960.
  59. “You’ll Enjoy Reading News of the Week in Cleveland 100 Years Ago.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 16, 1960.
  60. “Going On at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 15, 1961.
  61. “Civil War at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 4, 1961. “Civil War Films Showing at Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 10, 1961.
  62. “Plain Dealer, Halle’s Honored by Civil War Unit.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1962.
  63. “Sales, Earnings Down for Halle’s; Capital Added.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1961.
  64. Relihan, Cecil. “The Home Front, What’s New for Your Man’s Castle?” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 25, 1961. Metzler, Paul B. “Halle’s Art Show.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 22, 1961
  65. “Hotel, Store Set Shoppers Rest Break.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 21, 1961.
  66. Rider, Adin C. “Severance Center to Have Bazaar Air.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 25, 1962.
  67. “New Tearoom Reflects Spirit of the late Mrs. Samuel Halle.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 4, 1963.
  68. “Halle’s to Open Organ Studio.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 1, 1962.
  69. “Serve Up Delicious Summer Meals Easily with Specialties from Halle’s.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 28, 1962.
  70. “Up and Down the Aisles.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 15, 1962. “Come to the Treasure Hunt.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 23, 1962. “Plane Brings Halle’s Goods from Europe.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 1962.
  71. Bryan, John E. “Halle’s Lists Slight Gains.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 23, 1963.
  72. Bryan, John E. “Halle’s Sales Hit Highest Ever in Past Year; Profits Up Too.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 21, 1964.
  73. “Register Now for Halle’s Ski Week-end and Trophy Race.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 19, 1964.
  74. “Choose from Five Halle Purchase Plans.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 13, 1964.
  75. Beighle, Janet. “Black and White Theme Judged Tops in Table Setting Contest.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 6, 1964.
  76. “Business Briefs, Halle’s Moves to Diversify.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1965.
  77. “Halle’s Bros. Spending $1 Million on Two Stores.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 13, 1965.
  78. Bloomfield, Douglas. “Dry Run Gusher; Halle Opens in Summit.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 15, 1965.
  79. “Too Little, Too Late Halle Rates War on Decay.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 12, 1967.
  80. “Paperbacks on Summer Readings Lists for Senior High and College Students.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 5, 1967.
  81. “Hot Line of Happenings.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 25, 1967. “Hot Line of Happenings.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 9, 1967.
  82. “Fun Day Fashions.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 15, 1967.
  83. Bryan, John E. “Halle Expects Year-End Sale Surge.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 22, 1967.
  84. “Halle Denies Merger Rumor.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 21, 1968.
  85. “Big Plans for Little Italy.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 12, 1968.
  86. “Halle’s Forum, Insuring Satisfied Customer.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 1968.
  87. “Suburbia.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 7, 1969.
  88. “Halle’s is Expanding; ’68 Sales Set Record.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 15, 1969.
  89. Ibid.
  90. Bryan, John E. “Profit Gain Due, Cleveland Trust Told.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 17, 1970.
  91. Bryan, John E. “Sales at Peak but Halle Reports Loss.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 30, 1970.
  92. Cleary, John J. “Halle Bros. To Be Sold to Marshall Field & Company.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 25, 1970.
  93. Stock, Robert. “Stores Hopeful but Concerned.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 11, 1971.
  94. “Caldwell’s Half Sizes Brushed Jewel Jerseys.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 9, 1970.
  95. “Cooper Debut for Akron Two.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 27, 1970.
  96. Kelly, Michael. “Retailers Hopeful of Last-Minute Selling Spree.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 22, 1970.
  97. Kelly, Michael. “Halle’s Downtown Launches First-Floor Part of Big Renovations.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 25, 1971.
  98. Bryan, John E. “Halle Gets Credit for Field Gain.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 31, 1971.
  99. “Halle’s Will Run a Spring Geranium Fair.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, April 2, 1972.
  100. “Halle’s Adds Budget Clothing Sessions.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 13, 1972.
  101. Slimak, Paula. “Hair Stylist’s Color Technique Based on Natural Overtones.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 18, 1972.
  102. “Walter M. Halle, 66, Dies.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 11, 1972.
  103. “Halle Appoints an Ad Agency.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 4, 1975.
  104. “It’s All New, Halle’s Picture Framing.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 5, 1976.
  105. “Randall Park Mall Opens Doors Today.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 11, 1976.
  106. “Public Square Announcement to Halle Customers.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 19, 1977.
  107. Kelly, Michael.“Dreaming of a Green Christmas, How Sweet the Sound of Ash Register Bells.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 21, 1977.
  108. Green, Tom. “Santa Claus is Alive and Well and Living in Cleveland Downtown.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 9, 1977.
  109. Green, Tom. “Santa Claus is Alive and Well and Living in Cleveland Downtown.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 9, 1977.
  110. “Marshall Field Opposes Merger Plan.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 13, 1977.
  111. “The World of Wedgewood.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 3, 1976.
  112. “Sale of Halle’s is Now Complete.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, December 8, 1981.
  113. Sabath, Donald. “Halle’s Sold but Its Name Remains.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 18, 1981.
  114. Fuller, John and Donald Sabath. “Six Halle’s Spared; One at Westgate.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 29, 1982.
  115. Arman, Fran. “Halle’s Manager Refuses to Let City Institution Perish.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 19, 1982.
  116. Fuller, John and John Lee Koshar, “Higbee Co. to Get Halle’s Store.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 12, 1982. Sabath, Donald, John Fuller and Mary Strassmeyer. “Rumors Say Halle’s to Close All Five Stores.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 2, 1982. Fuller, John “Halle’s Chief, Ragan, fired by Jerome Shottenstein.” The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 3, 1982.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Halle's: A Treasure House of Gift by Richard Klein, Ph.D is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Feedback/Errata

Comments are closed.