1 Elroy McKendree Avery, “The Early Bridges of Cleveland”, in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County (private printed, Cleveland, Ohio, 1918). p. 24.

2 William Ganson Rose, Cleveland: The Making of a City (World Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1950) p. 26.

3 Henry W.S. Wood, “The Old Detroit-Superior Viaduct”, in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, p. 14.

4 Avery, “The Early Bridges of Cleveland,” pp. 24-25.

5 Ibid., pp. 26-27.

6 George E. Condon, Cleveland: The Best Kept Secret (Double-day and Coo., Garden City, New York, 1967) pp. 46-54.

7 Oliver P. Baldwin, in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, pp. 38-39.

8 F.T. Wallace, “Viaduct Reflections” (Cleveland, 1879).

9 Loc. Cit.

10 Wood, ‘The Old Detroit-Superior Viaduct,” p. 19.

11 Ibid., p. 20

12 Ibid., pp. 21-22

13 Nathan P. Payne, Message to the City Council (delivered on April 11, 1876).

14 Wallace, “Viaduct Reflections”

15 Jim Didas, “Old Superior Viaduct Waiting for its Doom,” in Cleveland Press (December 20, 1971).

16 Quoted from B.F. Morse’s report, see Appendix C.

17 Stanley L. McMichael, “The New Detroit-Superior High Level Bridge”, in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, p. 7.

18 Henry Grattan Tyrrell, “The Bridges of Cleveland,” in The Ohio Architect, Engineer, and Builder (1915) p. 5.

19 Builders of the New High-Level Bridge,” in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, p. 37.

20 Ralph E. Robinson, “Reconstruction of the Detroit-Superior Bridge,” in The Ohio Engineer (June, 1986) pp. 6-7.

21 “Civic Brevities”, in The Clevelander (December 19, 1927).

22 Wilbur J. Watson, A Decade of Bridges: 1926-1936 (J.H. Jansen, Cleveland, Ohio, 1937) pp. 11-26.

23 “Maskers Dance at Lorain Span Fiesta”, in Cleveland Plain Dealer (November 10, 1932.).

24 Dan F. Bradley, “The Bridge As Sermon in Steel,” in Cleveland Plain Dealer (December 8, 1932).

25 Rose, W.G. p. 356.

26 For a detailed study of this investigation see William J. Eney, “Model Analysis of Continuous Girders,” in Civil Engineering, II, 9 (September, 19410 521-523.

27 Howard Beaufait, Cleveland News (March 8, 1939).

28 Data taken from Stanley L. McMichael’s article, “Other Important Bridges of Cleveland.” in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, p. 33. For information on the Abbey Street Bridge, see Thomas Palko’s report in the Haer Inventory (August 11, 1975).

29 City, Engineer’s Report of 1914

30 Rose. W.G., p. 287.

31 The account of the Central Viaduct, written by Sara Ruth Watson, published in The Plain Dealer on December 4 10, 1938, in commemoration of the fiftieth, anniversary of the bridge.

32 See Henry Grattan Tyrell’s article, “The Bridges of Cleveland,” p. 6

33 The authors are greatly indebted to Ralph E. Robinson of Howard, Needles, Tammen and Bergendoff for information on the Inner Belt Viaduct.

34 J.A.L. Waddell, Bridge Engineering (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1916) Vol. I, p. 668.

35 The account of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad Company is taken from a feature article by Bruce Ellison, “City’s First Railroad on Track to Oblivion,” in the Cleveland Plain Dealer, Sec. 2 March 14, 1976) p. 1.

36 Rose W.G., p. 145.

37 Eric Johnannessen, “Drawings by Some Western Reserve Architects,” in Western Reserve Historical Society News (March-April, 1976) p. 15.

38 Taylor, Hampton, The Nickel Plate Road (World Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, (1947) pp. 96-7.

39 Ibid., p. 97.

40 Ibid., p. 131.

41 Ibid., p. 144

42 Richards Sanders Allen, Covered Bridges of the Middle West (Bonanza Books, New York, 1952) pp. 112-124

43 Loc. Cit.

44 D.B. Steinman and Sara Ruth Watson, Bridges and Their Builders, (Dover Publications, New York, 1975) p. 164.

45 Ibid., p. 165.

46 Tyrell, H.G., p. 4.

47 Ibid., p. 5.

48 The account of this structure is taken from Edmund H. Chapman, Wade Park Bridge 1899″ in The Architecture of Cleveland: Twelve Buildings (Western Reserve Historical Society Publications, 1973) pp. 47-51.

49 Wilbur J. Watson, General Specifications for Concrete Bridges (Privately printed, Cleveland, Ohio, 1908) pp. 15-6.

50 Henry Grattan Tyrell, History of Bridge Engineering (Privately printed, Chicago, 1911) p. 386.

51 Russ Musarra, “A Monument to Fear,” in the Cleveland Press, (February 6, 1970).

52 W.A. Stinchcomb.” The bridge That was Built in a Night,” in Bridges of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, p. 36.


Bridges of Metropolitan Cleveland Copyright © 2016 by Cleveland State University Michael Schwartz Library. All Rights Reserved.

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