Part II: Philanthropy

9. The Kinship of Nonprofit Institutions

From about 1930 to 1985 the number of institutions in the Circle grew from about 15 to about 45. The Circle changed from an almost exclusively cultural and educational orientation to a mix that included a substantial group of health-related organizations and several religious institutions. The newer institutions tended to have missions and services more narrowly-defined than the earlier Circle institutions: they aimed at constituencies missed by the first institutions, or that had emerged in the subsequent social-cultural evolution of American society. Some in this latter group were interdisciplinary — serving as bridges between traditionally separate areas of culture. Others were local representatives of national organizations.

The newer institutions usually were more service-and outreach-oriented, and less repositories of objects or cultural tradition than the earlier institutions had been. Most of the newer institutions did not add to the monumental aspect that Circle architecture had assumed by 1930, but were content to renovate former residences in Wade Allotment or to construct modest office buildings that merged unobtrusively with the visual environment of the Circle.

These newer institutions gravitated to the Circle because an environment had developed that was especially receptive to nonprofits. Initially many of them wanted to share resources with similar institutions in the spirit first established by Western Reserve University and Case School. Adjunct appointments for educators, common access to libraries and laboratories, shared training programs for students, an atmosphere of collegiality for professional staff, and (after the founding of the University Circle Development Foundation in 1957) shared parking and private police services were sufficient attractions to the Circle for many organizations with Cleveland or northeast Ohio orientations. Moreover, outside funding agencies often encouraged the development of interrelationships and shared facilities as a means of maximizing the effect of their support.

The most important group of nonprofits to emerge in the Circle since 1930 were those in the health field. The building of the Western Reserve University School of Medicine and the University Hospitals in the Circle in the 1920s and 1930s was the core of this development, but without other significant health-related institutions the Circle would not have become a major American medical center.[1]

Mt. Sinai Hospital, a 150-bed facility, was opened in a new building on its 105th Street site in 1916. First established in 1903 in a remodeled residence on East 37th Street, it was partially-supported by the Federation of Jewish Charities. The hospital’s new location served the eastward shift of Jewish settlement in Cleveland, although from the beginning the hospital was a medical center for all East-side ethnic groups.

The hospital was a pioneer in the specialized care of children, opening a pediatric clinic in 1915 and establishing a mental hygiene section in 1927 for treating children’s psychiatric problems. Education was also a focus: in 1916 the hospital opened a school for nurses, and in 1925 affiliated with the Western Reserve University School of Nursing. Much later, in 1947, the hospital became a teaching unit of the Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Mt. Sinai early supported medical research, an emphasis strengthened on the opening of a laboratory in 1925.

Expansion of the hospital’s facilities occurred at regular intervals into the 1980s. The number of patient beds increased more than three-fold, and numerous new departments and clinics were created to keep up with developments in heart, kidney, lung, eye, bone, nervous, and other diseases. Large personal gifts, the support of the Women’s Auxiliary, and grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Public Health Service made possible the expansion of research and facilities. In 1981 the hospital changed its name to the Mt. Sinai Medical Center to reflect the broad range of activities it encompassed.[2] The Medical Center was closed in 1996.

Another major medical institution, the Cleveland Clinic, was established near the Circle at East 93rd and Euclid Avenue in 1921. The idea for the Clinic came out of the World War I military medical corps experience of three surgeons and one physician from Cleveland. Impressed by the efficient yet effective treatment provided to the enormous number of wounded and diseased men, particularly near the battlefront in France, Frank E. Bunts, George W. Crile, William E. Lower, and John Phillips joined to form the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

The Clinic aimed to have a high degree of specialization in its practice, promising to utilize the latest developments in research and medical practice. Laboratory research was part of the program from the beginning, and fellowships for young physicians were instituted to introduce them to the new system. Because all of the founders held appointments at the Western Reserve University School of Medicine, they designed the programs of the Clinic to supplement, and not compete with, the school. That connection also was manifest by regularly electing presidents of Western Reserve and Case to the Clinic’s board.

The Clinic survived a tragic fire in 1929 that killed many patients and some of the staff. Afterward it continued to develop a world-wide reputation for specialized surgery and treatment for such problems as thyroid and adrenal gland malfunctions, and for abdominal cancers. In the 1950s the research orientation of the Clinic was heightened by reducing the authority of the medical and surgical divisions and introducing new committees to oversee long-term research programs. This change helped to keep the Clinic responsive to new approaches, such as the more conservative surgical techniques which it helped to promote in the 1950s and 1960s.

By the 1980s the Clinic was an international center for treatment of cancers, heart disease, digestive tract disorders, muscle and skeletal problems, nerve tissue damage, and diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems. The vast majority of the Clinic’s patients (which included 32,000 hospital admissions and 600,000 outpatient visits annually by 1984) came from outside the Cleveland area, and many came from outside the United States.

The Clinic had physically expanded to serve this enormous population. By the mid-1980s the Clinic had grown eastward along Euclid Avenue to East 105th Street, and had acquired essentially all the land between Euclid Avenue and Carnegie Avenue to the south. That expansion brought it right to the edge of the traditional boundary of University Circle. In many non-geographic ways, including its associate membership in University Circle Incorporated and the numerous interconnections of its faculty and staff with other Circle institutions, the Clinic was well within the Circle.[3]

The newest large hospital in the Circle, the Cleveland Veteran’s Administration Hospital, arrived in the 1960s. Although 19 acres of land were purchased between 105th and 108th streets north of East Boulevard in 1948, federal monies for construction were not allocated until 1960. A 300-bed hospital was opened in 1964, and a decade later a 280-bed wing was added. The hospital specialized in treating the spinal-cord injuries of both veterans and non-veterans, and was affiliated with the CWRU School of Medicine.[4]

Two smaller hospitals are also part of the medical history of the Circle. Woman’s Hospital, which had evolved from a dispensary established by women physicians in downtown Cleveland in 1878, came to the Circle in 1915 when it moved into a rented building on East 107th Street. Three years later the hospital erected a new building at East 101st Street and, with a largely female staff, remained there until it closed in 1984. Doctors’ Hospital was established in 1946 in Cleveland Heights at Edgehill and Cedar Roads in response to a perceived shortage of hospital beds in Cleveland. Renovating an apartment building into a 200-bed facility, Doctors’ specialized in cancer treatment and research. In 1968 the building was sold and the staff moved to a new location in Mayfield Heights, several miles to the east.[5] It was renamed Hillcrest Hospital and by 2019 was associated with the Cleveland Clinic.

Compared to University Hospitals, Mt. Sinai, and the Clinic, most of the other health-related institutions that were located in or near the Circle seemed small. Nonetheless, to their constituencies, such as the emotionally-disturbed, handicapped, ill, and young and old, they loomed large.

In the area of children’s services the Hanna Perkins School (located adjacent to University Hospitals since 1961) educated a population of emotionally-disturbed preschool children and provided them psychoanalysis and treatment. It traced its roots to a therapeutic nursery school established in 1931 by Dr. Amy Katan of the School of Medicine. Another children’s institution, the Ronald McDonald House on Euclid Avenue, when founded in 1979 served children with cancer by providing them and their families temporary living quarters when visiting Circle hospitals for treatment.[6]

The disabled and aging have been served in the Circle by several institutions. The Cleveland Association for the Hard of Hearing was founded in 1921 by Mrs. James R. (Helen Newall) Garfield, a civic-minded Clevelander whose husband was a leading legal and political figure in the city. Merging with the speech clinic of Western Reserve University in 1943 to form the Cleveland Hearing and Speech Center, a new facility was required, and in 1952 Nathan L. Dauby donated his house on Euclid Avenue in the heart of the Circle. In the 1960s a new building was erected on the same site to provide for the diagnosis, treatment, and continuing counseling relating to communication disorders in speech, language and hearing.[7]

The Cleveland Society for the Blind was created in 1906 as a result of efforts by the Goodrich Settlement House and the Cleveland Public Library to teach unsighted people to read. Successful programs to employ the blind and to help them to learn and live in a sighted society were carried out at various locations until in 1951 a building was purchased on East 93rd Street and a rehabilitation unit was opened the following year. In 1966 that building was closed and the Sight Center was opened at East 101st Street to provide social, rehabilitative, and recreational services.[8]

For many years the Circle’s most important psychiatric institution was Ingleside Hospital, founded in 1935 by Mabel A. Woodruff, a psychiatric social worker at City Hospital. In 1937 it moved into quarters near 89th and Euclid Avenue formerly occupied by the Huron Road Hospital. The hospital aimed to provide emotionally-kind and medically-correct short-term care, and became well-regarded in its field. New buildings were erected on the site in 1954 and 1968, but the hospital closed the following year due to financial problems and a labor strike. Reopened in 1970 as Woodruff Memorial Institute, focusing on drug dependency problems, it served the city for another 16 years when its programs were transferred to St. Vincent Charity Hospital.[9]

Care for the elderly has become an increasingly important element of health-related services in the Circle, and indeed in the United States. The Judson Retirement Community on Chestnut Hills Drive was founded in 1906 by a group of Cleveland Baptist women as the Baptist Home of Northern Ohio. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. contributed heavily to the first fundraising efforts. It first had residential care in the former William P. Southworth residence downtown, and later moved to a building at East 89th Street and Cedar Avenue. In 1940 the current site, the estate of Warren G. Bicknell, was purchased, and in the ensuring years the Bicknell mansion has been augmented by the construction of buildings designed specifically for elder care. Judson expanded its commitment to the Circle in 1983 when it purchased Wade Park Manor on East 107th Street, which had been operated as a retirement residence since 1964 and renamed it Judson Manor.[10]

Another important institution for the elderly was the Eliza Bryant Center, originally the Cleveland Home for Aged Colored People. The first nonreligious welfare institution in the city supported primarily by African-Americans, the Center was named after its founder. Beginning in 1893 Eliza Bryant was the prime mover in a campaign to establish a home for elderly Black residents, and the first home was opened in 1897 at East 71st Street near Lexington Avenue in the Hough district. Underfunded and often relying on inadequate facilities, the home struggled to serve a few clients until it became an early member of Cleveland’s Federation for Charity and Philanthropy in 1913. A fundraising drive raised enough to purchase a fifteen-room house on East 39th Street in 1914, which finally gave the home satisfactory quarters. In 1967 the home returned to Hough, moving into a larger building at Addison Road and Wade Park Avenue, a location about a mile west of the Circle.[11]

Another specialized and health-related organization in the Circle is the Free Medical Clinic of Greater Cleveland, founded in 1970 primarily to serve young people with drug problems. Staffed largely by physicians and medical students from Circle institutions, the Clinic was opened on Cornell Road after a telephone counseling service demonstrated the need for a drug-related medical facility, and grants from the Gund, Weatherhead, and Cleveland foundations provided the necessary backing. Very quickly the Clinic became a resource for poor and indigent in the surrounding community, and expanded its program to provide a range of social and health-related services. It moved to a nearby Euclid Avenue location in 1974. The Clinic was the first home of the Cleveland Rape Crisis Center, a counseling service for victims of sexual abuse established in 1974.[12]

The second large group of institutions that came to the Circle mostly after 1930 were primarily culturally and educationally oriented. Following in the train of institutions of higher education and museums of art and history, these institutions found that locating near them had decided advantages.

Two major theatrical institutions were founded in 1915-16 that eventually became members of University Circle Incorporated, even though they were not within its geographic boundaries. Karamu House was founded in 1915 by two graduates of Oberlin College, Rowena and Russell Jelliffe, with the aid of Cleveland’s Second Presbyterian Church.[13] The Jelliffes’ original intention was to establish a settlement house in the heart of the Central district of Cleveland, a mostly-Black neighborhood with few recreational facilities provided by the city. But soon they found that their greatest skills were in the performing arts and, even though social service functions continued to have a role in their program. By the 1920s dramatic productions featuring African-American Clevelanders became Karamu’s central activity.

The first performing hall was a neighboring store acquired and remodeled in 1927. It housed a number of well-received plays, including some written by Langston Hughes in the latter 1930s. When the theater burned in 1939 Karamu had sufficient reputation that it was offered the temporary use of the facilities of the Cleveland Play House and Western Reserve University. A fund-raising campaign which received major donations from Leonard Hanna, Jr. and the Rockefeller Foundation slowly raised the funds for a new theater. On site at East 89th Street and Quincy Avenue, about a mile southwest of University Circle, a new building with two auditoriums was constructed.

In the following decades Karamu took on a greater role as an exponent of Black culture and aspirations, a role that enabled many people to begin careers in the arts. The Cleveland Foundation and other local philanthropies often supported its programs, which included neighborhood services such as day care as well as arts education.[14]

The Cleveland Play House emerged out of discussions held in the fall of 1915 by a group of literati that met at the home of Charles and Minerva Brooks in the Wade Allotment. The next year the group founded the Play House Company and elected as director Raymond O’Neil, a Cleveland music and theater journalist. The first theater was a barn at East 86th Street and Euclid Avenue, where the first performance opened in 1916. The next year a church at East 73rd Street and Cedar Avenue was purchased and remodeled with the aid of a bank loan.

The Play House was put on a firm footing in 1921 when a trio of young but trained performers was brought in from the Carnegie Institute of Technology’s drama program, including Frederic McConnell as director, Max Eisenstatt as set designer, and K. Elmo Lowe as assistant director. These men successfully ran the Play House until Lowe retired in 1969, having followed McConnell as director in 1958. The Play House established itself as one of the finest regional theaters in the United States, and by the 1930s had a strong affiliation with the Western Reserve University drama department.

In 1927 the Play House built a two small theaters on land donated by the Drury family at East 86th Street between Euclid and Carnegie Avenues, and more than fifty years later, in 1984, the Play House incorporated those theaters into a new $14 million complex with a larger main theater and much larger backstage facilities. Two of the theaters were equipped with special listening systems for the hearing-impaired.[15]

The Cleveland Institute of Music is another performing arts organization which migrated to the Circle. Co-founded in 1920 by Mrs. Franklyn B. Sanders, a major figure in the Fortnightly Musical Club who became the Institute’s first executive director, and Mrs. Joseph T. Smith, the Institute had its home for forty years in residences in downtown Cleveland formerly owned by such leading Cleveland industrialists such as the Chisholms, Mathers, and Coxes. The Institute early provided free music lessons for gifted public school children, but most of its students paid to be trained by the professional musicians on its staff, many of whom were members of the Cleveland Orchestra. In 1952 the Institute began joint degree programs with Western Reserve University.

Needing a larger facility the Institute purchased land along Murray Hill Road in the 1930s, but eventually decided to erect a new building on East Boulevard in the Circle. The Institute’s architects designed an International-style building with an striking exterior frame and expanses of glass that opened in 1961. The Institute later developed closer relationships with CWRU, including a joint music education degree with the music department.[16]

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History has a life story remarkably similar to that of the Institute. It was also founded in 1920 and remained at a downtown location for forty years before moving to the Circle. However, there were much different purposes and actors.

The germ of the museum was a 1918 report of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce’s education committee, chaired by Harold T. Clark, which called for consolidation of the various natural history collections in the city. A group of twenty-six sponsors was gathered, each of whom promised to donate $1000 a year for twenty years: the group combined amateurs, some physicians and academics, including Case geology professor Frank Van Horn, and a few of Cleveland’s civic leaders, such as Mantis and Oris Van Sweringen. Clark, a leading corporate and probate lawyer, became the guiding force behind the museum.

The museum’s first permanent home was the former Leonard Hanna mansion on Euclid Avenue. The building quickly became filled with specimens of plants, animals, and minerals, including those obtained on a well-publicized collecting expedition to the South Atlantic financed by Mrs. Dudley S. Blossom. The museum soon developed a program for public school children, and the board of education placed several teachers there to arrange and supervise class visits to the museum.

As early as 1925 the museum intended to move to University Circle: Western Reserve University helped it obtain a site on East Boulevard. However, funding was not forthcoming, and the onset of the Depression delayed plans indefinitely. Not until 1958-61, with Clark still a major figure in developing financing, was the museum able to build in the Circle. The East Boulevard location was no longer available and the new museum occupied part of the northern edge of Wade Park. The collections of the museum had been refocused on the Cleveland region, although some of the new facilities — such as the planetarium — still emphasized general interests in natural science. The new museum immediately drew much larger attendance, and for the next two decades it remained one of the most important visitor sites in the Circle. It also became more closely integrated into the research and graduate programs of Case Western Reserve University.[17]

The Garden Center of Greater Cleveland also came to occupy a portion of Wade Park. The Center was established by members of the Garden Club of Cleveland who had first collaborated closely on the Fine Arts Garden in front of the museum of art. The space between the museum and the lagoon in Wade Park had remained undeveloped after the opening of the museum in 1916 — ten years later Cleveland’s city manager W.R. Hopkins described it as “squalid beyond description.”

The Garden Club decided to beautify the area and in 1923 raised funds by holding an “Italian street fair” in downtown Cleveland. With the proceeds they hired as landscape architects the Olmstead Brothers firm of Brookline, Massachusetts, to provide a design. It called for a highly-ordered arrangement of shrubs and sculpture. The design was implemented in 1927-28 with funds provided largely by the wealthy women who were the leaders and members of the Garden Club. The city of Cleveland cooperated by culverting Doan Brook, improving the banks of the lagoon, and laying sidewalks and installing storm sewers.[18]

The success of the Fine Arts Garden drew the Club’s attention to the vacant boathouse at the south end of the lagoon next to Euclid Avenue. They decided in 1930 to deposit their growing library there and create a public center for the encouragement of gardening. To raise funds they again turned to the device of a street fair, but this time it was located in from of the art museum and had a French theme. With the money in hand the club members obtained Harold T. Clark’s assistance to guide a lease through city council and then renovated the boathouse to provide library, exhibit, meeting and office space.

Though two small wings were added to the Center in 1939 it remained physically one of the smallest institutions in the Circle. Nonetheless it was highly active, sponsoring a garden program for city school children, receiving many visitors to the Center, and giving instruction and holding flower and plant exhibitions in other locations.

In 1959 a massive flood of Doan Brook washed over Euclid Avenue into the Garden Center, doing extensive damage. Given the limited space at the Center, the possibility of a similar flood in the future, and the lack of adjacent parking, it seemed wise to move to a new location. A building campaign was initiated in 1962 with large grant from the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund, which was administered by Harold T. Clark, and other Cleveland foundations, corporations, and individuals soon contributed. A much larger Center was planned for the northeastern border of Wade Park, at the ravine that had contained part of the original Cleveland Zoo. Although some controversy ensued over plans to fill the ravine, eventually a design was developed which incorporated it into the site plan. The Center was opened in 1966 and within a few years model herb, rose, and Japanese gardens were laid out. The Center continued to serve as a headquarters for numerous local garden clubs, as a source of instruction for schoolchildren, and as a source of advice and inspiration for all gardeners.[19] From 1995 to 2014 the Center changed names twice (in 2014 due to a merger with the Holden Arboretum), and in 1995, with a remodeling in 2003, constructed a substantial new facility on East Boulevard.

The Circle is the home for two specialized museums that educate and instruct. The Howard Dittrick Museum of Historical Medicine has housed the historical collections of the Cleveland Medical Library Association since the Association’s Allen Library building on Euclid Avenue was completed in 1926. Holding one of the largest collections of medical items in the country, the museum has been a resource for scholars as well as a place to view exhibits. The Cleveland Health Education Museum was opened in 1940 to provide public instruction in health and medicine. Its first site was a residence given it by Elisabeth S. Prentiss, but in 1943 the museum acquired the Treadway mansion at 89th and Euclid Avenue, and remodeled and expanded it for educational uses. Over time the museum’s major emphasis became the health education of schoolchildren.

The third major group of institutions in the Circle is religion-related. There are more than a dozen churches and other religious organizations in the Circle. In general, these institutions have not been attracted to the Circle because of their nonprofit status, but because their members are or once were residents of the area.

Several churches were erected on Euclid Avenue to the west of the Circle by the late 1800s as the population in the area increased. Euclid Avenue Congregational probably had the longest continuous presence in the area, descending from a Sunday School organized at Doan’s Corners in 1828. The current building (1985) was erected at 96th Street in 1887. Emmanuel Episcopal Church was begun as a satellite congregation of St. Paul’s Episcopal in 1871 at East 36th Street and Prospect Avenue. Moving to its present location at East 86th Street a few years later, it first had a frame house of worship. In 1900 Ralph Adams Cram designed a stone Gothic Revival building, which was erected in 1902-4.[20] The Logan Avenue Baptist Church was built at East 97th and Euclid Avenue following the formation of a Baptist congregation in the area in 1884. A much larger building in the Georgian Revival style was dedicated on the same site in 1907 with financial assistance from John D. Rockefeller. The congregation (renamed Church of the Master in 1921) moved to Cleveland Heights in 1948. Calvary Presbyterian Church was at first a mission established in 1884 at East 79th Street and Euclid Avenue by the Old Stone (Presbyterian) Church. In 1888-90 a stone Romanesque church was constructed on the same site based on the plans of architect Charles Schweinfurth.

Some of the Circle churches were founded by particular ethnic groups and had to be located to serve them. Holy Rosary Church in Murray Hill was dedicated in 1909 to serve a largely Catholic Italian population that had built up there over the previous two decades. The Temple was built on East 105th Street next to Mt. Sinai Hospital in 1924 because of the eastward movement of the Jewish population of Cleveland, and the largely reform-minded congregation of the Temple moved with it. (By 2010 the building was no longer used for religious services, and had become the Maltz Performing Arts Center of Case Western Reserve University.) Mt. Zion Congregational Church, with a largely African-American congregation, after 90 years of services in a series of four church buildings, each located further out from the center of Cleveland, moved eastward into a new edifice in the Circle in 1954.

A few churches were built in the Circle because recently-formed congregations decided to construct monumental buildings and sought spacious, visible locations for them. The Church of the Covenant was created by a union of two Presbyterian churches, one downtown and one already located in the Circle. In 1911 they completed a Gothic-style building, designed by Ralph Adams Cram, on Euclid Avenue adjacent to the College for Women. It was decorated with Tiffany stained glass and contained both a nave for worship and a wing for other activities. Epworth-Euclid United Methodist Church resulted from the merger of the Euclid Avenue Methodist Church, which had been established at Doan’s Corners in the 1830s, and the Epworth Memorial Church, a descendent of several downtown congregations. In 1920 the congregations purchased a lot on 107th Street overlooking the Wade Park lagoon and, after several years spent fundraising, commissioned architect Bertram Goodhue to design a new building. Completed in 1928 with a soaring steeple reminiscent of the church of Mont St.-Michel in France, the church has been called one of the most beautiful Protestant churches in the United States. In 2010 it was renamed University Circle United Methodist Church.

The First Church of Christ, Scientist was formed in 1891 from an earlier group of adherents, and erected its first building at East 46th Street and Cedar Avenue ten years later. In the 1920s the church purchased land in University Circle near the corner of Euclid Avenue and East Boulevard where Severance Hall now stands and plans were made to erect a new church there. However, the congregation graciously acceded to rapidly-developing efforts to locate on East Boulevard new buildings for the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the Cleveland Orchestra, and chose a new site on Overlook Road in Cleveland Heights where a beautiful classical church was dedicated in 1931.[21]

Western Reserve University had two Gothic-style chapels to serve its Protestant students. The College for Women had Florence Harkness Chapel, completed in 1902 on the design of Cleveland architect Charles Schweinfurth. On the Adelbert College campus was Amasa Stone Chapel, designed by Henry Vaughn and erected in 1911 by the daughters of Amasa Stone in honor of their father. These chapels were superseded in the early 1970s by the Interfaith Plaza built on Euclid Avenue next to the Church of the Covenant. Joseph Pigott, then Vice-President of Case Institute of Technology, had been instrumental in promoting plans for the Plaza. Combining the Jewish (Hillel), Catholic (Hallinan), and Protestant (University Christian Movement) student organizations, the Plaza provided a modern multipurpose place for both worship and social activities.[22]

*   *   *

In general, the forces that moved institutions toward and into the Circle transcended programmatic needs. Their histories were shaped by commonalities of philanthropic processes, and the eventual effects of conscious planning. A community of institutions was formed at the Circle whose commitment to cultural uplift, care for the socially unfortunate and, in some instances, serving purposes of religious faith and values, reflected the ideals of the elite that developed and sustained University Circle.


  1. For the planning and construction of the School of Medicine and University Hospitals see chapter 2. For further discussion see Frederick C. Waite, Western Reserve University Centennial History of the School of Medicine (Cleveland: Western Reserve University Press, 1946); David D. Van Tassel and John J. Grabowski, eds., Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987), pp. 1000-2; Clarence H. Cramer, Case Western Reserve: A History of the University 1826-1976 (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1976), pp. 295-304; and Darwin H. Stapleton, “Abraham Flexner, Rockefeller Philanthropy, and the Western Reserve School of Medicine,” Ohio History 101 (Summer-Autumn 1992): 100-113.
  2. “The Mt. Sinai Hospital of Cleveland: Historical Highlights,” Mt. Sinai News: Quarterly Report. parts 1-4 (1976).
  3. Alexander T. Bunts and George Crile, Jr., comps., To Act as a Unit: The Story of the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 1971); The Cleveland Clinic Foundation: A National Referral Center, An International Health Resource (Cleveland: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 1985).
  4. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. p. 1010; Adams, Howard and Greeley, University Circle: A Plan for Its Development (Boston: Adams. Howard and Greeley, 1957), p. 36.
  5. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 347, 1060-61.
  6. Typescript histories of the Hanna Perkins School, in author’s files; Celebrating Ten Years of Love: Ronald McDonald House of Cleveland (Cleveland: n.p., 1989), a commemorative booklet.
  7. Typescript histories of the Cleveland Hearing and Speech Center, in author’s files; Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, pp. 332-33.
  8. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, p. 272; “Milestones in the History of the Cleveland Society for the Blind,” a leaflet published by the Society, c. 1980.
  9. Woodruff Memorial Institute (Cleveland: Woodruff Memorial Institute, 1971); Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, p. 1068.
  10. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 583-84. See: “Baptist Home of Northern Ohio - Gift from John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 1907- 1951,” folder 36, box 5, series N, Office of the Messrs. Rockefeller, Rockefeller Family Archives, Rockefeller Archive Center (hereafter RAC), Sleepy Hollow, NY.
  11. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. p. 371; Kenneth W. Rose, “John D. Rockefeller’s Philanthropy and Problems in Fundraising at Cleveland’s Floating Bethel Mission and the Home for Aged Colored People,” Ohio History 108 (Summer-Autumn 1999): 145-161.
  12. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 269, 422.
  13. David D. Van Tassel and John J. Grabowski, eds., The Dictionary of Cleveland Biography (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996), pp. 244-45.
  14. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 568-69, 587; John Selby, Beyond Civil Rights (Cleveland: World Publishing, 1966); Karamu House file, Cleveland Foundation Records, Western Reserve Historical Society (hereafter WRHS), Cleveland, OH; Karamu House grant file, folders 3092-93, box 25, series 200, Record Group 1.1, Rockefeller Foundation Archives, RAC.
  15. Chloe Warner Oldenburg, Leaps of Faith: History of the Cleveland Play House, 1915-85. (Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Bros., 1985); Cleveland Plain Dealer, 12 May 1935; “Welcome to the Cleveland Play House,” leaflet (1986).
  16. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 214, 418; “A Summary of Certain Items...,” 1925, folder 2, Cleveland Conference for Education Cooperation papers, WRHS; Adams, Howard and Greeley, University Circle, p. 44; Mary-Peale Schofield, Landmark Architecture of Cleveland (Pittsburgh: Ober Park Associates, 1976), p. 182.
  17. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, pp. 193-4, 253; records, 1918-1926, Cleveland Museum of Natural History Archives, Cleveland, OH; Cleveland Plain Dealer, 7 June 1926; Cleveland Museum of Art, Bulletin. 11th Annual Report (1926): 28; The Cleveland School-Museum Program (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art and Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1927); The Explorer 2, no. 1 (1949): 2; University Circle, June 1961, p. 2.
  18. W.R. Hopkins to F.S. Harmon, 18 May 1926, and F.S. Harmon to W.R. Hopkins, 24 January 1927, folder 2, container 4, William R. Hopkins Papers, WRHS; history of the Fine Arts Garden, enclosed with I.T. Frary to Mrs. John Sherwin, 4 June 1928, folder 5, container 2, William R. Hopkins Papers, WRHS.
  19. Margaret Keal Knowles, Fifty Years of Growing and Serving: The Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 1930-1980 (Cleveland: Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 1980); “The Greater Cleveland Garden Center,“ University Circle, August 1962, p. 2; New York Times, 24 November 1964.
  20. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 375, 380-1.
  21. Eric Johannesen, Cleveland Architecture, 1876-1976 (Cleveland: Western Reserve Historical Society, 1979), pp. 18-19, 100,160-61, 201; Schofield, Landmark Architecture of Cleveland. pp. 129, 166-67, 176; Henry E. Bourne, The Church of the Covenant: The First Hundred Years (Cleveland: Church of the Covenant, 1945); Carlton K. Matson and Harold T. Clark, “The Cleveland Educational Group Plan,” Your Garden 1 (March 1928): 447; Mary Bopp and Janice McMillin, comps., More Than a Landmark: Eoworth-Euclid United Methodist Church, 1928-1978 (Cleveland Heights, OH: Creative Copy Associates, 1978); Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. p. 183.
  22. The Hallinan Center, a leaflet (Cleveland: Hallinan Center, c. 1971); Schofield, Landmark Architecture of Cleveland. pp. 164-5, 168; Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. pp. 22.


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