Chapter 11.0: Stimulants
amphetamine: central nervous system stimulant medications, most by prescription but some are only distributed illicitly in the U.S.
attention deficit disorder (ADD): a diagnosis ascribed to individuals exhibiting a specific constellation of behaviors that include distractibility and disorganization, among others.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a diagnosis ascribed to individuals exhibiting a specific constellation of behaviors that include the attention deficit disorder characteristics, as well as impulsivity and excessive activity, restlessness, and fidgeting, among others.
autonomic nervous system (ANS): a part of the nervous system responsible for directing many involuntary bodily functions (e.g., breathing, heart rate, digestion, and glandular activity); it is comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems that act in concert to maintain a state of homeostasis.
caffeine: a stimulant compound naturally occurring in several types of plants around the world, including tea, coffee, and cacao/cocoa.
cocaine: a powdered stimulant substance produced from coca or produced synthetically, having both stimulant and anesthetic effects.
crack: a crystal form of cocaine, as opposed to the powdered form.
cross-sensitization: drug sensitization developed to one substance through repeated use that carries over as sensitization to another substance despite its never having been used.
cross-tolerance: drug tolerance developed to one substance through repeated use that carries over as tolerance to another substance despite its never having been used.
e-cigarette: a device designed to heat nicotine (or other substance) liquid by battery power rather than combustion (burning) as would be the case with traditional cigarettes.
e-cigarette or vaping associated lung injury (EVALI): the label assigned to a respiratory illness/symptom complex attributed to harm (or death) from using e-cigarettes/vaping products.
epinephrine: a central nervous system neurotransmitter (sometimes called adrenaline) with stimulant effects on the autonomic nervous system and dopamine centers.
homeostasis: the state of balance/equilibrium that systems attempt to achieve and maintain to preserve energy; generally, a healthy state in living organisms.
methamphetamine: a synthetic form of amphetamine with longer lasting effects; having some recognized medical uses, it is primarily produced, distributed, and used illicitly in the U.S
nicotine: the primary psychoactive (stimulant) component in tobacco, also may be produced in liquid or powdered form.
norepinephrine: a central nervous system neurotransmitter (sometimes called noradrenaline) with effects on the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic nervous system: a component of the autonomic nervous system responsible, in part, for regaining a state of homeostasis following an event where the “fight or flight” response has been triggered.
second-hand smoke: vapors and residue exhaled by someone who is smoking tobacco products and inhaled by a person who is not smoking.
sensitization: repeated use of a substance leading to a decrease in tolerance–it takes less of the substance to produce the same effects previously experienced at higher doses.
sympathetic nervous system: a component of the autonomic nervous system responsible, in part, for initiating a “fight or flight” response to trigger events.
third-hand smoke: smoke residue that accumulates on hard and soft surfaces (e.g., carpeting, furniture, car seats) in areas where someone has been smoking.
tobacco: a specific type of nicotine-rich plant, the leaves of which are processed to make a variety of products (cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco).
vaping: the use of electronic/e-cigarettes.