Chapter 6.0 Spiritual Considerations
A.A. Agnostics of the San Francisco Bay Area. (n.d.). AA Agnostics. http://www.aaagnostics.org.
A.A. Nashville. (n.d.). Middle Tennessee meeting search. www.aanashville.org/cgi-bin/meetingdb/mtgsearch.cgi?interface=Basic&city=-A+n+y+w+h+e+r+e&text=nashville&button=Search.
A.A. Seattle. (n.d.). Greater Seattle intergroup meetings. https://www.seattleaa.org/meetings/?tsml-day=any.
Acheampong, A.B., Lasopa S., Striley, C.W., Cottler, L.B. (2016). Gender differences in the association between religion/spirituality and simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) Journal of Religion and Health, 55(5):1574–1584. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0168-5.
Acker, C. A. (2017). Hope and healing in the opioid crisis: Freedom to serve the vulnerable. Public Justice Review, 6(3). A Publication of the Center for Public Justice. https://cpjustice.org/index.php/public/page/content/pjr_vol6no3_caleb_acker_hope_healing_opioids.
Adlaf, E.M., Smart, R.G. (1985). Drug use and religious affiliation, feelings and behaviour. Addiction, 80(2):163–171. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1985.tb03267.x.
Adult & Teen Challenge USA (ATCUSA). (2018). Teen Challenge 2017 USA—fact sheet. https://www.teenchallengeusa.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Fact-sheet_ATCUSA_May-2018.pdf.
Alcoholics Anonymous. (n.d.). Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous. https://www.aa.org/pages/en_US.
Ali, M. (2014). Perspectives on drug addiction in Islamic history and theology. Religions, 5:912–928. doi: 10.3390/rel5030912.
American Hospital Association. (n.d.). AHA NOVA award winners. https://www.aha.org/about/awards/aha-nova-award.
Amihai, I., Kozhevnikov, M. (2015). The influence of Buddhist meditation traditions on the autonomic system and attention. BioMed Research International. doi: 10.1155/2015/731579.
Anderson, K. (2015). Outcome of alcoholism? Not ‘Jails, Institutions or Death.’ https://www.rehabs.com/pro-talk-articles/the-outcome-of-alcoholism-is-not-jails-institutions-or-death/.
Annapolis Area Intergroup. (2017). Meeting directory: Where and when. Annapolis: The Red House.
Bahr, S.J., Hoffmann, J.P. (2008). Religiosity, peers, and adolescent drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(3):743–769. doi: 10.1177/002204260803800305.
Bartkowski, J.P., Xu, X. (2007). Religiosity and teen drug use reconsidered: A social capital perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6):S182–S194. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.03.001.
BBC Magazine. (2015). The many groups that have copied Alcoholics Anonymous. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33049093.
Bicknese, A. T. (1999). The Teen Challenge drug treatment program in comparative perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University. https://teenchallengeusa.com/docs/NW_study.pdf.
Borkman, T. (2008). The twelve-step recovery model of AA: A voluntary mutual help association. In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer, pp. 9–35.
Brown, T.L., Parks, G.S., Zimmerman, R.S., Phillips, C.M. (2001). The role of religion in predicting adolescent alcohol use and problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(5):696–705. doi: 10.15288/jsa.2001.62.696.
Buddhist Recovery Network. (n.d.). About us. https://www.buddhistrecovery.org/about.htm.
Burnett, R. G. (2014). Faith based programs in the treatment of substance abuse. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1746&context=gs_rp.
Capital Health. (n.d.). For my baby and me—a drug treatment program for pregnant women and new mothers. https://www.capitalhealth.org/medical-services/opioid-treatment-for-pregnant-women-new-moms.
Carrico, A.W., Storholm, E.D., Flentje, A., Arnold, E.A., Pollack, L.M., Neilands, T.B., Kegeles, S.M., et al. (2017). Spirituality/religiosity, substance use, and HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 174:106–112. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.024.
Celebrate Recovery. (n.d.). History of Celebrate Recovery. https://www.celebraterecovery.com/about/history-of-cr.
Chan, C., Ho, P., Chow, E. (2002). A body–mind–spirit model in health. Social Work in Health Care, 34(3–4):261–282. doi: 10.1300/j010v34n03_02.
Chen, Y., VanderWeele, T.J. (2018). Associations of religious upbringing with subsequent health and well-being from adolescence to young adulthood: An outcome-wide analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(11):2355–2364. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy142.
Cheney, A.M., Curran, G.M., Booth, B.M., Sullivan, S.D., Stewart, K.E., Borders, T.F. (2013). The religious and spiritual dimensions of cutting down and stopping cocaine use. Journal of Drug Issues, 44(1):94–113. doi: 10.1177/0022042613491108.
Chesnut, G.F. (2014). Father Ed Dowling: Bill Wilson’s sponsor. Bloomington: iUniverse.
CHI St. Gabriel’s Health. (n.d.). Vision, mission, and values. https://www.chistgabriels.com/vision-mission-and-values/.
Cook, D. (2015). Mysticism in Sufi Islam. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, 1:1. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.51.
Cunha, D. (2015). ‘I was fresh meat’: How AA meetings push some women into harmful dating. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/sep/22/alcoholics-anonymous-aa-women-dating-addition-rehab.
Debnam, K., Milam, A.J., Furr-Holden, C.D., Bradshaw, C. (2016). The role of stress and spirituality in adolescent substance use. Substance Use and Misuse, 51(6):733–741. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2016.1155224.
Debnam, K.J., Milam, A.J., Mullen, M.M., Lacey, K., Bradshaw, C.P. (2018). The moderating role of spirituality in the association between stress and substance use among adolescents: Differences by gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(4):818–828. doi: 10.1007/s10964-017-0687-3.
Degenhardt, L., Dierker, L., Chiu, W.T., Medina-Mora, M.E., Neumark, Y., Sampson, N., Kessler, R.C., et al. (2010). Evaluating the drug use “gateway” theory using cross-national data: Consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 108(1–2):84–97. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.12.001.
Dingle, G.A., Cruwys, T., Frings, D. (2015). Social identities as pathways into and out of addiction. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:1795. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01795.
Diocese of Trenton. (2018). New program offers stability to pregnant women struggling with addiction, homelessness. https://www.catholiccharitiestrenton.org/program-offers-stability-pregnant-women-struggling-addiction-homelessness/.
Dodes, L., Dodes, Z. (2014). The sober truth: Debunking the bad science behind 12-step programs and the rehab industry. Boston: Beacon Press.
Drabble, L., Trocki, K.F., Klinger, J.L. (2016). Religiosity as a protective factor for hazardous drinking and drug use among sexual minority and heterosexual women: Findings from the National Alcohol Survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 161:127–134. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.01.022.
Duke University. (n.d.) Center for spirituality, theology and health monthly eNewsletter. https://spiritualityandhealth.duke.edu.
Elmholdt, E.M., Skewes, J., Dietz, M., Møller, A., Jensen, M.S., Roepstorff, A., Wiech, K., Jensen, T.S., et al. (2017). Reduced pain sensation and reduced BOLD signal in parietofrontal networks during religious prayer. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11:337. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00337.
Ferri, M., Amato, L., Davoli, M. (2006). Alcoholics anonymous and other 12-step programmes for alcohol dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3:CD005032. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005032.pub2.
Ford, J.A., Hill TD. (2012). Religiosity and adolescent substance use: Evidence from the national survey on drug use and health. Substance Use and Misuse, 47(7):787–798. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2012.667489.
Foshee, V.A., Hollinger, B.R. (1996). Maternal religiosity, adolescent social bonding, and adolescent alcohol use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 16(4):451–468. doi: 10.1177/0272431696016004005.
Galanter, M., Kaskutas, L.A. (2008). Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and spirituality in addiction recovery: The twelve-step program model spiritually oriented recovery twelve-step membership effectiveness and outcome research. New York: Springer.
George, L., Ellison, C., & Larson, D. (2002). Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health. Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 190–200. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1449328.
Gomes, F. C., de Andrade, A. G., Izbicki, R., Moreira-Almeida, A., & de Oliveira, L. G. (2013). Religion as a protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students: A national survey. Revisa Brasileira de Psiquiatria (official journal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Association), 35(1), 29–37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23567597.
Grammich, C., Hadaway, K., Houseal, R., Jones, D.E., Krindatch, A., Stanley, R., Taylor, R.H. (2012). 2010 U.S. religion census: Religious congregations & membership study. Lenexa: Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies.
Grim, B. J., & Grim, M. E. (2016). The socio-economic contributions of religion to American society: An empirical analysis. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 12, 3. http://religjournal.com/pdf/ijrr12003.pdf.
Grim, B., and Grim, M. (2019). Belief, behavior, and belonging: How faith is indispensable in preventing and recovering from substance abuse. Journal of Religion and Health, 58(5): 1713-1750. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759672/#CR82
Hardeman, R., Gerrard, M. D., & Owen, G. (2011). Minnesota teen challenge follow-up study: Results summary. https://www.wilder.org/wilder-research/research-library/minnesota-teen-challenge#study-reports.
Haug, S., Núñez, C.L., Becker, J., Gmel, G., Schaub, M.P. (2014). Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: Results from a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1202.
Hein, J.F. (2014). The quiet revolution: An active faith that transforms lives and communities. New York: Waterfall Press.
Herman-Stahl, M.A., Krebs, C.P., Kroutil, L.A., Heller, D.C.. (2007). Risk and protective factors for methamphetamine use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among young adults aged 18 to 25. Addictive Behaviors, 32(5):1003–1015. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.07.010.
Hodge, D.R. (2006). A template for spiritual assessment: A review of the JCAHO requirements and guidelines for implementation. Social Work, 51(4):317–326. doi: 10.1093/sw/51.4.317.
Hodge, D.R. (2011). Alcohol treatment and cognitive-behavioral therapy: Enhancing effectiveness by incorporating spirituality and religion. Social Work, 56(1):21–31. doi: 10.1093/sw/56.1.21.
Hsu, S.H., Grow, J., Marlatt, A.G. (2008). Mindfulness and addiction. In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer, pp. 229–250.
Jang, S.J., Franzen, A.B. (2013). Is being ‘Spiritual’ enough without being religious? A study of violent and property crimes among emerging adults. Criminology, 51(3):595–627. doi: 10.1111/1745-9125.12013.
Jegindø, E.E., Vase, L., Skewes, J.C., Terkelsen, A.J., Hansen, J., Geertz, A.W., Jensen, T.S., et al. (2012). Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(4):413–426. doi: 10.1007/s10865-012-9438-9.
Johnson, B. R. (2002). A better kind of high: Religious commitment reduces drug use among poor urban teens. This research was released in 2002 as a CRRUCS Report at the University of Pennsylvania and is being re-issued as a Baylor ISR Report at Baylor University in 2008. https://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/24227.pdf.
Johnson, B. R. (2016). Measuring faith: Quantifying and examining religion’s contributions to American society. Invited talk at Georgetown University.
Johnson, B. R., Pagano, M.E., Lee, M. T., Post, S.G. (2015). Alone on the Inside: The Impact of Social Isolation and Helping Others on AOD Use and Criminal Activity. Youth & Society, 50(4):529–550. doi: 10.1177/0044118X15617400.
Johnson, B. R, Lee, M. T., Pagano, M. E., & Post, S. G. (2016a). How giving help to others can help young people deal with their own addiction. London School of Economics: USA Politics and Policy Blog.
Kaskutas, L.A., Kaskutas, L.A., Bond, J., Weisner, C. (2003). The role of religion, spirituality and Alcoholics Anonymous in sustained sobriety. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21(1):1–16. doi: 10.1300/j020v21n01_01.
Katcher, B. (1993). Benjamin Rush’s educational campaign against hard drinking. American Journal of Public Health, 83(2), 273-281.
Kelly, J.F., Pagano, M.E., Stout, R.L., Johnson, S.M. (2011). Influence of religiosity on 12-step participation and treatment response among substance-dependent adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 72(6):1000–1011. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2011.72.1000.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Faith & mental health: Religious resources for healing. West Conshohocken: Templeton Foundation Press.
Koenig, H.G. (2008). Medicine, religion and health: Where science and spirituality meet. West Conshohocken: Templeton Foundation Press.
Koenig, H.G. (2011). Spirituality & health research: Methods, measurements, statistics and resources. West Conshohocken: Templeton Foundation Press.
Koenig, H.G. (2018). Religion and mental health: Research and clinical applications. West London: Academic Press.
Koenig, H.G., King, D., Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. 2. New York: Oxford University Press.
Koenig, L.B., Vaillant, G.E. (2009). A prospective study of church attendance and health over the lifespan. Health Psychology, 28(1):117–124. doi: 10.1037/a0012984.
Kulis, S., Hodge, D.R., Ayers, S.L., Brown, E.F., Marsiglia, F.F. (2012). Spirituality and religion: Intertwined protective factors for substance use among urban American Indian youth. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(5):444–449. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2012.670338.
Lassister, P. and Spivey, M. (2018). Historical perspectives and the moral model. In Lassiter, P. S., & Culbreth, J. R(Eds.). Theory and practice of addiction counseling (pp. 27-46). Sage.
Laudet A.B. (2008). The road to recovery: Where are we going and how do we get there? Empirically driven conclusions and future directions for service development and research. Substance Use and Misuse, 43(12–13):2001–2020. doi: 10.1080/10826080802293459.
Lee, M.T., Johnson, B.R., Pagano, M.E., Post, S.G., Leibowitz, G.S. (2017). From defiance to reliance: Spiritual virtue as a pathway towards desistence, humility, and recovery among juvenile offenders. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 4(3):161–175. doi: 10.1037/scp0000144.
Lee, M.T., Pagano, M.E., Johnson, B.R., Post, S.G. (2016). Love and service in adolescent addiction recovery. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 34(2):197–222. doi: 10.1080/07347324.2016.1148513.
Lee, M., Pagano, M., Johnson, B., Veta, P. (2014). Daily spiritual experiences and adolescent treatment response. Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 32(2):271–298. doi: 10.1080/07347324.2014.907029.
LifeRing. (n.d.). For treatment professionals. https://lifering.org/for-professionals-menu/for-treatment-professional/.
Longest, K.C., Vaisey, S. (2008). Control or conviction: Religion and adolescent initiation of marijuana use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(3):689–715. doi: 10.1177/002204260803800303.
Lyons, G., Deane, F.P., Kelly, P.J. (2010). Forgiveness and purpose in life as spiritual mechanisms of recovery from substance use disorders. Addiction Research & Theory, 18(5):528. doi: 10.3109/16066351003660619.
Martin, R.A., Ellingsen, V.J., Tzilos, G.K., Rohsenow, D.J.. (2015). General and religious coping predict drinking outcomes for alcohol dependent adults in treatment. The American Journal on Addictions, 24(3):240–245. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12181.
Medlock, M.M, Rosmarin, D.H,, Connery, H.S., Griffin, M.L., Weiss, R.D., Karakula, S.L., McHugh, R. (2017). Religious coping in patients with severe substance use disorders receiving acute inpatient detoxification. The American Journal on Addictions, 26(7):744–750. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12606.
Metzger, A., Dawes, N., Mermelstein, R., Wakschlag, L. (2011). Longitudinal modeling of adolescents’ activity involvement, problem peer associations, and youth smoking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(1):1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2010.09.005.
Montgomery, H.A., Miller, W.R., Scott Tonigan, J. (1995). Does alcoholics anonymous involvement predict treatment outcome? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12(4):241–246. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(95)00018-z.
Moody-Smithson, M. (2001). Religion’s effects on health outcomes: A literature review. Presented at CSAT’s Faith and Community Partners Initiative National Focus Group Meeting, July 26–27, 2001, Washington, D.C. Rockville, MD: Logicon/Row Sciences, Inc.
Moreno, O., Cardemil, E. (2018). The role of religious attendance on mental health among Mexican populations: A contribution toward the discussion of the immigrant health paradox. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(1):10–15. doi: 10.1037/ort0000214.
Morris, K. (2017). State partners with recovery congregations to tackle addiction: The Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (TKMHSAS). https://www.wbir.com/article/news/local/state-partners-with-recovery-congregations-to-tackle-addiction/51-491913475.
Moscati A., Mezuk, B. (2014). Losing faith and finding religion: Religiosity over the life course and substance use and abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 136:127–134. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.018.
Nemes, S., Wish, E.D., Messina, N. (1999). Comparing the impact of standard and abbreviated treatment in a therapeutic community. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 17(4):339–347. doi: 10.1016/s0740-5472(99)00009-4.
Oosten, K. V. (2018). CHI St. Gabriel’s health rallies community to tackle opioid abuse. Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHA). https://www.chausa.org/publications/catholic-health-world/assembly-2018-coverage/chi-st-gabriel’s-health-rallies-community-to-tackle-opioid-abuse.
Orr, R.D. (2015). Incorporating spirituality into patient care. The AMA Journal of Ethics, 17(5):409–415. doi: 10.1001/journalofethics.2015.17.5.spec1-1505.
Owen, P., Gerrard, M. D., & Owen, G. (2007). Following-up with graduates of Minnesota Teen Challenge: Results of telephone surveys with persons completing treatment in 2001 through 2005. https://www.wilder.org/wilder-research/research-library/minnesota-teen-challenge-study-reports.
Pagano, M., Wang, A., Rowles, B., Lee, M., Johnson, B. (2015). Social anxiety and peer helping in adolescent addiction treatment. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(5):887–895. doi: 10.1111/acer.12691.
Palamar, J., Kiang, M., Halkitis, P. (2012). Religiosity and exposure to users in explaining illicit drug use among emerging adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3):658–674. doi: 10.1007/s10943-012-9660-3.
Polcin, D.L., Borkman, T. (2008). The impact of AA on non-professional substance abuse recovery programs and sober living houses. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 18:91–108. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-77725-2_6.
Post, S. G., Johnson, B. R., Lee, M. T., & Pagano, M. E. (2015). Positive psychology in Alcoholics Anonymous and the 12 steps: Adolescent recovery in relation to humility. The Addictions Newsletter, The American Psychological Association, Division 50.
Post, S., Lee, M., Johnson, B., Pagano, M. (2016). Humility and 12-step recovery: A prolegomenon for the empirical investigation of a cardinal virtue. Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 34(2):262–273. doi: 10.1080/07347324.2016.1182817.
Puffer, E., Skalski, L., Meade, C. (2012). Changes in religious coping and relapse to drug use among opioid-dependent patients following inpatient detoxification. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(4):1226–1238. doi: 10.1007/s10943-010-9418-8.
Rew, L., Wong, Y. (2006). A systematic review of associations among religiosity/spirituality and adolescent health attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4):433–442. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.02.004.
Richards, P., Bartz , O’Grady, K. (2009). Assessing religion and spirituality in counseling: Some reflections and recommendations. Counseling and Values, 54(1):65–79. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007x.2009.tb00005.x.
Rioux, P. (2018). Leading a faith-based charge against opioid abuse. Health Progress: Journal of the Catholic Health Association of the United States, 99(2), 29–32, March–April. https://www.chausa.org/publications/health-progress/article/march-april-2018/leading-a-faith-based-charge-against-opioid-abuse.
Sacred Connections. (n.d.). Native American spirituality and the 12-Steps. http://12wisdomsteps.com/native_american/index.html.
Schjødt, U., Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H., Geertz, A., Roepstorff, A. (2008). Rewarding prayers. Neuroscience Letters,443(3):165–168. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.068.
Schjødt, U., Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H., Geertz, A., Roepstorff, A. (2009). Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4(2):199–207. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsn050.
Schoenthaler, A., Lancaster, K., Chaplin, W., Butler, M., Forsyth, J., Ogedegbe, G. (2018). Cluster randomized clinical trial of FAITH (Faith-based approaches in the treatment of hypertension) in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.118.004691.
Secular Organization for Sobriety. (n.d.). About Jim Christopher. www.sossobriety.org/jim-christopher.
Slaymaker, V., Sheehan, T. (2008). The impact of AA on professional treatment. In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer, pp. 59–70.
SMART Recovery. (n.d.). About SMART recovery. https://www.smartrecovery.org/about-us/.
Steinman, K., Ferketich, A., Sahr, T. (2006). The dose-response relationship of adolescent religious activity and substance use: Variation across demographic groups. Health Education & Behavior, 35(1):22–43. doi: 10.1177/1090198105284839.
Steinman, K., Zimmerman, M. (2004). Religious activity and risk behavior among African American adolescents: Concurrent and developmental effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3–4):151–161. doi: 10.1023/b:ajcp.0000027002.93526.bb.
Stoddard Dare, P. and DeRigne, L. (2010). Denial in alcohol and other drug use disorders: A critique of theory. Addiction Research and Theory, 18(2), 181-193. doi:10.3109/16066350902770441
Szaflarski, M. (2001). Gender, self-reported health, and health-related lifestyles in Poland. Health Care for Women International, 22(3):207–227. doi: 10.1080/073993301300357160.
The Church of Jesus Christ Latter-day Saints. (2018). Addiction recovery program. https://addictionrecovery.lds.org/home?lang=eng.
The Jesuits. (n.d.). About us. http://jesuits.org/aboutus.
The Joint Commission (formerly JCAHO). (n.d.). Provision of care, treatment, and services (PC) (Critical Access Hospitals). Medical record—Spiritual assessment. https://www.jointcommission.org/standards_information/jcfaqdetails.aspx?StandardsFAQId=1492.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA). (2001). So help me God: Substance abuse, religion and spirituality. https://www.centeronaddiction.org/addiction-research/reports/so-help-me-god-substance-abuse-religion-and-spirituality.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA). (2003). The formative years: Pathways to substance abuse among girls and young women aged 8–22. https://www.centeronaddiction.org/sites/default/files/The-formative-years-pathways-to-substance-abuse-among-girls-and-young-women-ages-8-22_0.pdf.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA). (2010). National survey of American attitudes on substance abuse XV: Teens and parents. https://www.centeronaddiction.org/addiction-research/reports/national-survey-american-attitudes-substance-abuse-teens-parents-2010.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA). (2011). CASA’s national survey of high school students, parents of high school students, and high school personnel. Unpublished manuscript, CASA, New York.
The Tennessee Department of Mental Health & Substance Abuse Services (TDMHSAS). (n.d.). Fast facts: Certified recovery congregation locations. https://www.tn.gov/behavioral-health/research/tdmhsas-fast-facts-test-3/fast-facts–faith-based-initiatives-recovery-congregations.html.
Thompson, R. D. (1994). Teen challenge of Chattanooga, TN: Survey of adult alumni. https://iteenchallenge.org/wp-content/uploads/itc-resources/Chatt_Research_Report_19941.PDF.
Tonigan J., Connors G., Miller W. (1996). Alcoholics Anonymous involvement (AAI) scale: Reliability and norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10(2):75–80. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.10.2.75.
Tonigan, J., Miller, W. R., Schermer, C. (2002). Atheists, agnostics and Alcoholics Anonymous. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(5):534–541. doi: 10.15288/jsa.2002.63.534.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2016a). Guidelines for regulatory impact analysis. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/242926/HHS_RIAGuidance.pdf.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS). (2018a). Opioid epidemic practical toolkit: Helping faith and community leaders bring hope and healing to our communities. https://www.hhs.gov/about/agencies/iea/partnerships/opioid-toolkit/index.html.
Vagins, D. and McCurdy, J. (2006). Cracks in the system: Twenty years of unjust federal crack cocaine law. The American Civil Liberties Union. https://www.aclu.org/other/cracks-system-20-years-unjust-federal-crack-cocaine-law
Vance, Z. (2016). Advocates, state see different approaches to treating opioid addiction. Johnson City Press, March 13. https://www.johnsoncitypress.com/Community/2016/03/13/State-department-launches-addict-recovery-network-in-Boones-Creek.html.
VanderWeele T. (2017). Religion and health: A synthesis. In: Peteet J., Balboni M., editors. Spirituality and religion within the culture of medicine: From evidence to practice. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 357–402.
Wallace, J., Yamaguchi, R., Bachman, J.G,. O’Malley, P., Schulenberg, J., Johnston, L. (2007). Religiosity and adolescent substance use: The role of individual and contextual influences. Social Problems, 54(2):308–327. doi: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.2.308.
Wellbriety Movement. (n.d.). About us. https://wellbriety.com/about-us/.
White, W., Kelly, J., Roth, J. (2012). New addiction-recovery support institutions: Mobilizing support beyond professional addiction treatment and recovery mutual aid. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 7:297–317. doi: 10.1080/1556035X.2012.705719.
White, W.L., Kurtz, E. (2008). Twelve defining moments in the history of Alcoholics Anonymous. In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer; pp. 37–57.
Wills, T.A., Yaeger, A.M., Sandy, J.M. (2003). Buffering effect of religiosity for adolescent substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17(1):24–31. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.17.1.24.
Wolf-Branigin, M., Duke, J. (2007). Spiritual involvement as a predictor to completing a salvation army substance abuse treatment program. Research on Social Work Practice, 17(2):239–245. doi: 10.1177/1049731506294373.
Yeterian, J.D., Bursick, K.B., Kelly, J.F (2018). “God put weed here for us to smoke”: A mixed-methods study of religion and spirituality among adolescents with cannabis use disorders. Substance Abuse, 8:1–9. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2018.1449168.
Yeung, J., Zhang, Z., Kim, T. (2017). Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: Cumulative effects and forms. BMC Public Health. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4561-8.
Yu, A., Devine, C.A., Kasdin, R.G., Orizondo, M., Perdomo, W., Davis, A.M., Katz, J.N., et al. (2016). Pain management among Dominican patients with advanced osteoarthritis: A qualitative study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. doi: 10.1186/s12891-016-1075-y.
Zemore, S.E. (2008).An overview of spirituality in AA (and recovery) In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer, pp. 111–123.
Zemore, S.E., Kaskutas, L.A., Ammon, L.N. (2004). In 12-step groups, helping helps the helper. Addiction, 99(8):1015–1023. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00782.x.
Zemore, S.E., Pagano, M.E. (2008). Kickbacks from helping others: Health and recovery. In: Kaskutas L, Galanter M, editors. Recent developments in alcoholism. New York: Springer, pp. 141–166.