Chapter 10.0: Alcohol
alcohol by volume (ABV): a universal measure of alcohol concentration in beverages, refers to milliliters of pure ethanol in 100 milliliters of the beverage (at 68o F) converted to a percentage.
alcohol poisoning: term used for alcohol overdose resulting from drinking too much too quickly, raising blood alcohol concentration to high levels; potentially fatal.
alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD): term covering a variety of known morphological and organ system changes resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Note: ARBD as an abbreviation may also refer to alcohol-related brain damage experienced later in life as a result of alcohol misuse.
alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD): term covering a range of central nervous system changes (often characterized by dementia) caused by an adult’s prolonged alcohol misuse. Note: ARBD as an abbreviation may also refer to alcohol-related birth defects.
alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND): refers to a range of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disabilities resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure.
ASAM levels of care: set of guidelines established by the American Society of Addiction Medicine matching recommended treatment intensity to assessment of individuals in need of alcohol or other substance misuse/use disorder treatment.
binge drinking (heavy episodic drinking): consuming 4 or more drinks within about 2 hours by women and 5 or more drinks in 2 hours by men.
blood alcohol concentration (BAC): refers to the percent of ethanol in a person’s blood (sometimes referred to as blood alcohol level, or BAL).
delirium tremens: confusion and other symptoms (e.g., shaking, shivering, irregular heart rate, sweating) related to alcohol withdrawal in some persons who have a history of heavy drinking.
detoxification (detox): a first step intervention to manage withdrawal from alcohol (or other substance) and used as a prelude to entering treatment.
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): a continuum of conditions related to prenatal alcohol exposure.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): on the FASD continuum, involving brain damage, impaired growth, and specific morphological differences of the face/head; may be full or partial outcome.
heavy drinking: 8 or more drinks per week for women and 15 or more drinks per week for men.
heavy episodic drinking (HED): see binge drinking
high-risk drinking: 4 or more drinks on any day (binge drinking) or 8 or more drinks per week for women (heavy drinking); 5 or more drinks on any day (binge drinking) or 15 or more drinks per week for men (heavy drinking).
standard drink measure: a way of indicating alcohol consumption, each standard drink equivalent is determined as 14 grams of pure ethanol in a beverage.
teratogen: any factor that disrupts fetal development, such as chemicals (including alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs), x-rays, viral or bacterial infections.