Chapter 1.0: Introduction
binge drinking: In the NSDUH surveys, this is defined as five or more drinks on the same occasion for men, and four or more for women. The NIAAA definition is a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to or above the 0.08-gram percent (the .08 legal limit for driving). Risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) is another term for describing binge drinking.
blood alcohol concentration: defined in terms of grams (weight) of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood, for example 0.08 means 80 milligrams (.08 grams) per 100 milliliters (100 ml=1 deciliter, dL) blood, and can be estimated in breath or urine tests.
decriminalization: the act of repealing, removing, or reducing legal restrictions or criminal penalties associated with a previously illegal act.
harmful use of alcohol: the World Health Organization (WHO) definition involves consuming alcohol in a manner“that causes detrimental health and social consequences for the drinker, the people around the drinker and society at large, as well as the patterns of drinking that are associated with increased risk for adverse health outcomes” (WHO, p. 2).
heavy drinking: Defined in the NSDUH surveys as a pattern of binge drinking on each of five or more days in a month.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): an institute of NIH charged with supporting and conducting research on the impact of alcohol use on human health and well-being and leading the nation’s efforts to reduce alcohol-related problems.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): an institute of NIH charged with advancing science concerning the causes and consequences of drug use and addiction, as well as applying that knowledge to improve public health.
National Institutes of Health (NIH): comprised of 27 institutes and centers, operating through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to seek knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and application of that knowledge to health enhancement.
National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH): an institute of NIH leading research into mental disorders, as well as discovery in the science of brain, behavior, and experience toward the goal of prevention and cure of mental disorders.
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH): an annual study sponsored by SAMHSA providing national and state-level data concerning mental health status in the United States, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drug misuse.
Psychoactive (psychotropic) substances: These are substances that, when consumed, have a significant effect a person’s mental processes, mind, mood, and behavior.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): the federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) charged with leading public health efforts to advance the nation’s behavioral health and reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental disorders on communities.
War on Drugs: the label applied in 1971 by President Nixon to a campaign of United States government policy actions directed toward controlling trade in illegal drugs.
World Health Organization (WHO): part of the United Nation’s system, headquartered in Geneva, and leading global efforts to promote health and responses to global health concerns.