Chapter 3.0: Key Definitions, Diagnostic Criteria, Classification of Substances, and Models

Ch. 3.5: References and Image Credits


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American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). (2011). Public policy statement: Definition of addiction. Retrieved from

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Bersamira, C. (in press). Roles for social work and other professions in support of recovery-oriented addiction policies and services. In A.L. Begun & M. Murray, (Eds.), The handbook of social work and addictive behavior. London: Routledge.

Chen, G. (2006). Natural recovery from drug and alcohol addiction among Israeli prisoners. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 43(3), 1-17.

Drucker, E., Anderson, K., Haemmig, R., Heimer, R., Small, D., Walley, A…van Beek, I. (2016). Treating addictions: Harm reduction in clinical care and prevention. Bioethical Inquiry, 13, 239-249.

Erickson, P.G., & Alexander, B.K. (1989). Cocaine and addictive liability. Social Pharmacology, 3, 249-270.

Glenn, J.E., & Wu, Z.H.  (2009).  Sobriety.  In G.L. Fisher & N.A. Roget, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, & recovery, volume 2, (pp. 828-832).  Los Angeles: Sage.

Hartje, J. (2009). Disease concept. In G.L. Fisher & N. A. Roget, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, & recovery, volume 1, (pp. 292-295). Los Angeles: Sage.

Heather, N. (2017). Is the concept of compulsion useful in the explanation or description of addictive behaviour and experience? Addictive Behaviors Reports, 6, 15-38.

Heather, N., Best, D., Kawalek, A., Field, M., Lewis, M., Rotgers, F…Heim, D. (2018). Challenging the brain disease model of addiction: European launch of the addiction theory network. Addiction Research & Theory, 26(4), 249-255.

Jellinek, E.M. (1952). Current notes: Phases of alcohol addiction. Retrieved from

Kaskutas, L. A., Borkman, T. J., Laudet, A. B., Ritter, L. A., Witbrodt, J., Subbaraman, M. S., & Bond, J. (2014). Elements that define recovery: the experiential perspective. Journal of Studies on Alcohol & Drugs, 75(6), 999-1010.

Klingemann, J. (2016). Acceptance of reduced-risk drinking as a therapeutic goal within the Polish alcohol treatment system. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 51(4), 436-441.

LaBrie, J.W., Boyle, S.C., & Napper, L.E. (2015). Alcohol abstinence or harm-reduction? Parental messages for college-bound light drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 46, 10-13.

McLellan, A.T. (2017). Substance misuse and substance use disorders: Why do they matter in healthcare? Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 128, 112-130.

Napper, L.E. (2019). Harm-reduction and zero-tolerance maternal messages about college alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 89, 136-142.

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Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A., Nagin, D.S., Piquero, A.R., Slutske, W.S., Milne, B.J.,…Moffitt, T.E. (2008). Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? Psychological Science, 19(10), 1037-1044.

Palpcuer, C., Duprez, R., Huneau, A., Locher, C., Boussageon, R., Laviolle, B., & Naudet, F. (2018). Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders: A systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis on nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen and topiramate. Addiction, 113(2), 220-237.

Price, R.K., Risk, N.K., & Spitznagel, E.L. (2001). Remission from drug abuse over a 25-year period: Patterns of remission and treatment use. American Journal of Public Health, 91(7), 1107-1113.

Single, E. (1995). Defining harm reduction. Drug and Alcohol Review, 14, 287-290.

Sobell, L. (2007). The phenomenon of self-change: Overview and key issues. In H. Klingemann & L.C. Sobell, (Eds.), Promoting self-change from addictive behaviors: Practical implications for policy, prevention, and treatment, (pp. 1-30).

Thombs, D.L. (2009). Moral model. In G.L. Fisher & N. A. Roget, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, & recovery, volume 1, (pp. 560-563). Los Angeles: Sage.

Vaillant, G.E. (2003). A 60-year follow-up of alcoholic men. Addiction, 98(8), 1043-1051.

Volkow, N.D., Koob, G., & McLellan, A.T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(4), 363-371).

White, W. L. (2008). Recovery management and recovery-oriented systems of care: Scientific rationale and promising practices. Chicago: Great Lakes Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Northeast Addiction Technology Transfer Center, and Philadelphia Department of Behavioral Health and Mental Retardation Services. Retrieved from:

Image credits:

Unless otherwise noted, the Audrey Begun created tables and figures appearing in this book; images come from creative commons public domain ( and 123rf contract.

August 14, 2019 version


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Introduction to Substance Use Disorders by Patricia Stoddard Dare and Audrey Begun is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.